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On a molecular level, all organisms

A. show no similarities.

B. use different means of storing genetic information.

C. have the same bases in DNA and RNA, the same amino acids in proteins, but use different genetic codes.

D. have the same bases in DNA and RNA, but different amino acids in proteins.

E. have the same bases in DNA and RNA, the same amino acids in proteins, and use the same genetic code.


5 points

Question 2

Which of the following statements about natural selection is true?

A. Natural selection leads to increased likelihood of survival for certain individuals based on variation. The variation must come from outside the population.

B. Natural selection results in those individuals within a population who are best-adapted surviving and producing more offspring.

C. Natural selection causes variations to arise within a population.

D. All individuals within a population have an equal likelihood of survival. Survival is based on chance.

E. Natural selection leads to extinction.


5 points

Question 3

As opposed to external fertilization, internal fertilization ensures that

A. sperm will be protected until they can unite with the eggs.

B. only the fittest of sperm and egg combinations will survive.

C. the number of sperm and eggs produced will be equal.

D. all of the sperm will fertilize eggs.

E. sperm and egg will be released simultaneously.


5 points

Question 4

A population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

A. is very common in nature.

B. requires a small population size.

C. consists of allele frequencies that are constantly changing.

D. is under no selective pressures.

E. consists of genotype frequencies that are constantly changing.


5 points

Question 5

Up until the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, many naturalists believed that all species of living organism(s) had been created separately and had remained unchanged since the creation. Around that time, scientific research provided findings that were contradictory to that idea. All of the following are findings that contradict the idea of a single creation. Choose the exception.

A. The platypus is only found in Australia and the dodo was only found on Madagascar.

B. Even though the limbs of various mammals carry out different functions (swimming, gliding, running, holding, etc.), the bone patterns are very similar.

C. As scientists explored more of the earth, they found that different groups of organisms were found in the different regions.

D. The limbs of some mammals serve the same purpose but their bone patterns are very different.

E. Some fossils of extinct organisms are quite different from living organisms.


5 points

Question 6

Most mutations lead to a decreased chance of survival for the mutant organism. Rarely, a mutation can provide an increased chance of survival. These rare mutations provide a(n) _____________________ for the mutant.

A. selective advantage

B. environmental susceptibility

C. directional shift

D. adaptive

E. selective disadvantage


5 points

Question 7

Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) are

A. constantly secreted into the bloodstream of males.

B. produced in the ovaries.

C. produced in both male and female humans.

D. produced in the testes.

E. only produced in female humans.


5 points

Question 8

Animals that possess both male and female sexual organs

A. are dioecious and typically cross-fertilize.

B. are hermaphroditic and typically self-fertilize.

C. are hermaphroditic and typically cross-fertilize.

D. are parthenogenetic and typically self-fertilize.

E. are dioecious and typically self-fertilize.


5 points

Question 9

Chemical compounds secreted by mammals and insects to communicate sexual readiness are called

A. estrogens.

B. hormones.

C. testosterones.

D. pheromones.

E. developers.


5 points

Question 10

Vestigial organs

A. are similar in many organisms.

B. did not have a function when they first developed, but do so today.

C. include the human appendix and wisdom teeth and a snake’s hipbones.

D. are not found in present-day organisms.

E. must have evolved individually in different organisms.


5 points

Question 11

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

A. can be used to reveal pregnancy.

B. is produced by the amnion.

C. is stored in the ovaries.

D. acts as a hormone signaling menstruation.

E. is needed to form the placenta.


5 points

Question 12

Which of the following is the best description of an adaptation?

A. an environmental change that selects for certain traits

B. a trait that is of no advantage to survival

C. a trait that will be beneficial in the future

D. a trait that was beneficial to survival in the past

E. a trait that is currently beneficial to survival


5 points

Question 13

This type of selection favors both extremes of the phenotype spectrum within a population.

A. neutral

B. disruptive

C. natural

D. stabilizing

E. directional


5 points

Question 14

Immature eggs are called

A. oocytes.

B. blastocysts.

C. follicles.

D. basal cells.

E. ovaries.


5 points

Question 15

After being produced in the seminiferous tubules, sperm mature in the

A. seminal vesicle.

B. epididymis.

C. vas deferens.

D. ejaculatory duct.

E. urethra.


5 points

Question 16

Embryonic development includes all of the following except

A. gastrulation.

B. fertilization.

C. organogenesis.

D. growth.

E. cleavage.


5 points

Question 17

Random changes in gene frequency that occur in small populations describes the concept of

A. adaptive radiation.

B. parapatric speciation.

C. convergent evolution.

D. genetic drift.

E. sympatric speciation.


5 points

Question 18

Negative feedback loops act to

A. cause an erection of the penis when stimulated.

B. cause milk production after childbirth.

C. cause expulsion of milk during breastfeeding.

D. control sperm production.

E. cause uterine contractions during childbirth.


5 points

Question 19

The primary male hormone is

A. testosterone.

B. produced in the brain.

C. estrogen.

D. only involved in sperm production.

E. produced throughout a male’s entire lifetime.


5 points

Question 20

Which of the following is not true of the punctuated equilibrium theory?

A. It proposes that most evolutionary change is concentrated in relatively brief episodes of change.

B. It was inspired in part by patterns observed in the fossil record.

C. It appears to be well supported by the fossil record.

D. It suggests that subgroups diverge and evolve at about equal and constant rates.

E. It suggests that most species undergo little phenotypic change during most of their evolutionary duration.

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