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UNIT 31. the term psychophysics refers to :a) study of the relationship between readings scales and readings on measures of physiological processes ( blood pressure, heart rate )b) study of the effects of physical variables ( atmospheric pressure gravity, light intensity, on behavior.c) study of physiology psychology in all its manifestationsd) study of the relationships between the prophets of stimuli as measured on a physical scale, and the psychological or subjective of those stimuli.2)Thresholds are typically define as :a) that minimal or maximal (for upper thresholds) stimulus intensity that is detected 50% of the time.b) the initial appearance in consciousness of any given phenomenonc) the theoretical doorkeeper between the unconscious and consciousnessd) mere awareness s opposed to an interpretive cognition.3) Elements of psychophysics, a classic in psychology, was written by:a) Ernst Heinrich Weber.b) Hermann von Helmholtzc) Rudolph Hermann lotzed) Gustav Theodor Fechner4) You wish to measure brightness discrimination. Your subject views a standard light source and attempts the standard by turning a knob that controls the brightness of a comparison stimulus. You use an ascending and descending series. You are using the method of:a) average errorb) limitsc) constant or intervals.5) the formal beginning of experimental psychology are generally traced to the year when ______a) 1834; weber published his work on the sense of touchb)1879; Wundt established a laboratory at Leipzigc) 1882: lotze published his outlines of psychologyd) 1873; Wundt published volume ! of his classic principles of physiological psychology6) Wundt’s broad interest were evident in his 10-volume work:a) Volkerpsychologieb) elements of psychophysicsc)principles of psychologyd) handbook of physiological optics7) in terms of his mind-body position, Wundt’s position is most similar to that embraced by: a) descartesb) Leibnizc)la metried) Spinoza8. ______was one of the first to conduct experiments on the issues of task perseveration.a) Franz Brentanob) Edward Bradford titchenerc) Georg elias mullerd) Wilhelm wundt9. Research on imageless thought was controversial because it challenged:a) the theory of the unconscious.b) the elementary building block approach to psychologyc) the possibility of retroactive inhibition.d) all forms of holistic thinking.10) Titchener identified three different elementary processes. They were:a)) sensations, affections, and imagesb)sensations, affections and behaviorsc) behaviors, reflexes and sensationsd) behaviors, reflexes and mental operations11) Titchener believed that all associations can be reduced to the single law of:a) similarityb) contrastc) Intensityd) contiguity12) according to the text , a system can be defined as:a) an organized way of envisioning the worldb) an overarching theoretical construct to be studiedc) an overarching theoretical construct to be studiedd) a blueprint for a research program13) the technical term employed by Titchener for his system of psychology was:a) Voluntarismb) Functionalismc) Radical empiricismd) Structuralism14) James’s concept of primary memory is somewhat comparable to contemporary notions ___ memory, whereas his concept of secondary memory is somewhat comparable to contemporary notions of _____ memory.a) short-term; long-termb) long-term; short termc) long-term;sensoryd) sensory; short-term15) His book The Psychology of Industrial Efffiency marks him as one of the pioneers of industrial psychologyWilliam JamesB) G. Stanley HallHugo Munsterberg James McKenn Cattell16) Ontogony recapitulates phylogeny.” This statement is most consistent with the ideas of:William JamesB) Leta Stetter HollingworthG.Stanley HallD) James McKeen Cattell17) in his classic article, “the reflex arc concept in psychology” john dewey argued thata) the reflex should be foundational for all of psychologyb) American psychologists should pay more attention to the work of the Russian psychologist ivan Pavlovc) we should not dissect experience or reflexes into artificial piecemeal units.18) James position on free will and determinism is characterized most accurately by which of the following statements.a) God does not play dice with the universeb) my first acts of free will shall be to belive in free willc) the ego is not masterin its own housed) God is clever but not malicious19) which of the following kinds of determinism would james postulate?a) metaphysical determinismb) methological determinismc) strict biological determinismd) theological predeterminism or predestination20) the initial reception of behaviorism would james postulate?a) enthusiasticb) cool or even grudgingc) enthusiastic, especially among the older psychologists, but the younger psychologists were guardedd) cool in America, but enthusiastic in Europe21) each of the following individuals is an important part of the history of behaviorism excepta) julian offray de la mettrieb) Etienne Bonnot de Condillacc) Claude-A Helvetiusd) Immanuel kant22) the dog becomes drowsy or even falls asleep during conditioning. It Is most likely,in such a circumstance, that the psychologist is employing a procedure known as_____ conditioning.a) traceb) delayedc) aversived) backward23) stimuli similar to the original stimulus may also elicit the CR Pavlov referred to this as:a) disinhibitionb) paradoxical inhibitionc) stimulusd) spontaneous recovery24) Pavlov was interested in disputing claims ofa) insight learningb) applications of classical conditioning to humansc) operant conditioningd) all of the above25) a theory of learning known as connectionism is associated with the work of which of the following. a) john B Watsonb) ivan sechenovc) robert sessions woodworthd) Edward lee thorndike

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