INSTRUCTIONS

This assignment asks you to explore the question: does money make us more self-interested? In this assignment, you will carry out research, and develop and test hypotheses based on a set of key research questions. You will then write up your findings in the form of a research report. You will examine whether the tendency towards self-interest is greater when individuals are reminded of money compared to when they are not. If money is associated with individual self-interest, then you would expect the self-interest bias to be stronger when people are reminded of money. You will also test the idea that political orientation is related to the tendency to respond in a self-interested manner. Finally, you will test an interaction between exposure to money and one’s political orientation on their tendency towards self-interest. The research report should be a maximum of 2700 words, with +/- 10% flexibility on the word count.

This word limit does NOT include: title page tables figures references. It DOES include the Abstract. As an approximate guide, use the following: Abstract (150 words) Introduction (approximately 900 words) Method and Results (approximately 900 words combined) Discussion (approximately 900 words). Your assignment should be typed and double-spaced using a standard 12-point font. Use APA formatting throughout, including for tables and figures. You may place your tables and figures within the Results section (i.e. no need to use the manuscript submission convention of placing tables at the end of the article). Do not attach the materials, questionnaire or printouts of your results to your research report. As your formatting guide, refer to the APA Publication Manual. It is recommended that you read all essential readings, and start to have a clear idea of what arguments you are going to make. Introduction A useful format for the Introduction is to structure it in terms of the following (major) sections: The Introduction should provide a review of Vohs et al.’s work on money priming and its effect on self-interested behaviour. A useful format for the Introduction is to structure it in terms of the following (major) sections: Describe the context of the research in terms of money priming, political orientation and self-interested behaviours; these concepts should be clearly defined when first introduced. Discuss the finding that priming people with the concept of money leads them to think and behave in a more self-interested manner. Discuss the different theoretical accounts of the priming effect. Describe research examining the role of political orientation in self-interested behaviour. State the aim(s), research questions and hypotheses of the study. Most of the intellectual energy that goes into this report should be directed towards the theoretical and empirical rationale provided for the hypotheses. Formulate hypotheses that reflect the study aims. Justify hypotheses by tying them to related research so they flow smoothly and directly from the literature. Please note: the references you have been given should be sufficient for your literature review. However, you can include extra references if you think you require them. Consider carefully how many extra references you need. A general guideline would be if you are stating really specific claims, one reference would be enough, especially if it is clearly stated that it is coming from one person or one group of people. If the statement is more general, then at least two references would be needed. A well-written, well-argued report with few extra references will achieve a higher grade than a poorly written report that includes many extra references. (Of course, a very well-written report with a few extra references will also attract a high grade.)

Method Include subheadings as follows: Participants This section should describe the nature of the individuals who participated in the research. Design This section should describe the 2 x 2 experimental design. The dependent variable should also be specified. Measures This section should describe the main concepts that were measured or manipulated, and the questions or scenarios used to do so. The description should include the construct that the scale/item is purported to measure, how it is scored, and what resulting scores mean. (For example, what does a high or low score mean?) Procedure This section should describe how the survey was administered, and should include a description of any instructions given, randomisation, and counterbalancing of conditions, etc. Please note: the golden rule for the method section is so that the reader could easily go away and reproduce the study exactly. Make sure you provide sufficient description of the scales used, so that inclusion of the questionnaire would be superfluous. Do not attach a copy of the questionnaire to your report. Results This report is not a test of your statistical knowledge, and you will be given data analysis guidelines to assist you for this reason. The statistics should be used as a tool to demonstrate whether or not the expected theoretical relationships are supported. You will be expected to present the results in correctly formatted text, tables or figures, as appropriate. At the very least you will need one table that includes descriptive statistics across the levels of the IV (i.e. mean and standard deviations). If there is an interaction, then displaying the means in a figure is often more interpretable. The data file will be available to you through your eLA. You should report the sample descriptives (Means and SDs) for all measures used in your study. The results will need to be directly tied to the hypotheses. That is, you will run analyses that will be designed to answer your hypothesis. Since the hypotheses are about differences in mean scores across the IVs, you will need to use independent samples t-tests. Don’t forget to include the manipulation check in your report. Please note: There is no set way to present results, as long as they conform to APA guidelines. You must decide what looks best and provide all necessary information in the most efficient and clear way. Discussion Discuss the findings in relation to the aims and hypotheses and literature cited in your Introduction, referring to previous literature (e.g. references cited in your Introduction), where appropriate. Were your hypotheses supported? If so, what evidence is there that the results are reflecting ‘true’ relationships versus methodological factors (e.g. the nature of the sample, the measures used)? If they were not supported, then you must discuss possible reasons for this. Discuss limitations of the study (these should be tied directly to the results), and provide suggestions for future research. Your final paragraph should summarise the study and contain conclusions relating to the money priming effect on self-interested behaviour. Please note: Make sure your claims are backed up by the findings of this research or previous research. Don’t just list possible methodological problems with the research. You need to directly tie them to the results. For example, if the sample had anything to do with the results, then it needs to be directly explained how it may have resulted in the association (or lack thereof) between the variables. A good discussion will concentrate on only a few problems that could explain a range of findings and explain them fully rather than simply list a multitude of problems. Your report should also include a title page, Abstract, and references. The title page should provide a succinct title to encapsulate the topic under study, as well as your name and details. The Abstract should be no more than 150 words in length. Marks will also be awarded for overall integration and references and presentation. The references you have been given should be sufficient to begin your literature review. However, you should explore the relevant literature further and include additional references in your report. SPSS Please note you will need to use SPSS for this assignment. Refer to Syllabus for more information. Additional resources Your eLA will give you a data set early in the teaching period that you will analyse to test your hypotheses. You have also been given the following Analysis notes that contain the output of the necessary analyses. Of course, you are encouraged to analyse the data yourself if you have access to statistical software. However, this is not necessary to complete the assignment. Report instructions (begin by reading these instructions, which also includes your starting references). Information for the Results section of your major report, which will also be provided at the end of Week 4 through your eLA: Analysis notes (PDF 250 KB).Preview the document Information for the Methods section of your major report: Survey used for the research report (PDF 515 KB).Preview the document Procedure (PDF 488 KB)Preview the document. Further resources: Assignment 2: Exemplar of a report (135 KB)Preview the document Required readings for your report Savani, K., Mead, N. L., Stillman, T., & Vohs, K. D. (2016). No match for money: Even in intimate relationships and collectivistic cultures, reminders of money weaken sociomoral responses. Self and Identity, 15, 1-14. doi:10.1080/15298868.2015.1133451 Van Lange, P. A. M., Bekkers, R., Chirumbolo, A., & Leone, L. (2012). Are conservatives less likely to be prosocial than liberals? From games to ideology, political preferences and voting. European Journal of Personality, 26, 461-473. doi:10.1002/per.845 Vohs, K. D. (2015). Money priming can change people’s thoughts, feelings, motivations, and behaviors: An update on 10 years of experiments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144, e86-e93. doi:10.1037/xge0000091 Vohs, K.D., Mead, N. L., & Goode, M. R. (2006) The psychological consequences of money. Science. 314, 1154 – 1156. doi:10.1126/science.1132491 Vohs, K. D., Mead, N. L., & Goode, M. R. (2008) Merely activating the concept of money changes personal and interpersonal behavior. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 208–212. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2008.00576.x Zaleskiewicz, T., Gasiorowska, A., & Vohs, K. D. (2017). The psychological meaning of money. In R. Ranyard (Ed.), Economic Psychology. doi:10.1002/9781118926352.ch7 Zettler, I., & Hilbig, B. E. (2010). Attitudes of the selfless: Explaining political orientation with altruism. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 338-342. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.11.002 Zettler, I., Hilbig, B. E., & Haubrich, J. (2011). Altruism at the ballots: Predicting political attitudes and behavior. Journal of Research in Personality, 45, 130-133. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2010.11.010 References Hart, C. M., Ritchie, T. D., Hepper, E. G., & Gebauer, J. E. (2015). The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding Short Form (BIDR-16). Sage Open, 5, 2158244015621113. doi:10.1177/2158244015621113

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