Cell Structure and Function:Cell Types and

T r ansport

MargaretVorndam, M.S.Version 42-0037-00-01


LAB REPORTASSISTANT                                                                                


Thisdocumentisnotmeanttobeasubstituteforaformallaboratoryreport.TheLabReport Assistantissimplyasummaryoftheexperiment’squestions,diagramsifneeded,anddatatables thatshouldbeaddressedinaformallabreport.Theintentistofacilitatestudents’writingoflabreports by providing this informationin an editable filewhichcan be sent to an instructor.























O B S E RVATIO NS                                                            






Data Table 1: Cell Structures

Prokaryote Cell Structure




Organism name:              

EukaryoticCell Structure




Organism name:                            

Flagella                                 Cell wall

Capsule or slime layer      Nucleoid Plasma membrane            Cytoplasm Ribosome     Thylakoid Endospore

Pseudopodia                         Cell membrane


Nucleus                                   Cytoplasm Contractilevacuole              Food vacuole Endospore


Data Table 2: DiffusionRate Comparison










Time, T o





End Time, T


Length of Time in hours


= T 1 – T o


Movement ofcolor



Rate of Diffusion Inmm/ hour










Liquid (Water)




















Data Table 3: Diffusionthrough a DifferentiallyPermeable Membrane

A t Beginning of Exercise

…..  At End of Exercise …..



What are its


What it its initial Color?

What is its final Color?



T est Color


What are its finalcontents?



Dialysis Tubing










Beaker Water







Exercise1:ProkaryotesandEukaryotes-Differences in Cell Structure and Function


RE S U LT S                                                                                                                           


1.   What differencesare observed between the two cells that were drawn?






2.   List the specificcell part that each cell type possesses to:







Escape from hazardous conditions?





R egulate water content?



Store food?



R eproduce?







A.  With which cell type, prokaryote or eukaryote, are you most familiar?






B.   Which cell type would be most successful in extreme environments? Why?







C.   BecausetheProkaryotebacteriaaregenerally3µmorlessinlengththeymaynotexhibit specificstructuresunderacompoundlightmicroscope.Whattypeofmicroscopewouldbea betterchoice for viewing bacteria?




D. Researchamoebasonlineandgiveafewexamplesincludingwheretheyarefoundandwhat energy source they use.






E.  Discusswhethercyanobacteriaandamoebasarebeneficialordetrimentaltohumansandto the environment in general.











Exercise  2:  Eukaryotes  – Plant  and  Animal  Cell

Structure and Function

RE S U LT S                                                                                                                     


1.   What differencesare observed between the two cells that were drawn?



2.   List the cell part that each cell type possesses to:








Produce energy to power cell function?




Store food?





























A.  With which cell type, plant or animal, are you most familiar?












B.   Which cell type would be most successful in extreme environments? Why?



C.  OutlinethegeneraldifferencesbetweenplantandanimalcellsinTable1.Thenoutlinethe similarities.


T able1: ComparisonofStructure andFunction:AnimalandPlantCells


Animal Cells

Plant Cells

Diff erences:





















Exercise  3:  Transport  of Materials  through  Cell

Membranes – An Example of Passive Transport



A.  Which mediumexhibited the fastestrate of diffusion?






B.   What might be reasons to explain the differencesin the rate of diffusion?






C.   Graphthe twosets ofresultsfrom Table2 onthe same graphusinga computer spreadsheet programandincludethisgraphinyourreport.Whyissimultaneousgraphingoftheresultsuseful here?Whattypeofgraphwouldbestdemonstrateratesofdiffusioningelatinversusliquid?Hint: The graph should show a continuityfrom Toto T1for both mediums.











DISCUSSIO N                                                                                                            


A.  Were your twohypotheses supported orrefuted?




























B.   How might the rate of diffusionbe increased? Decreased?






C.   How might this be tested?






D.  Why is this exercise be an example of passive transport?






E.  Whymustthespreadofthecoloringinthegelatinbemonitored?Forexample,whycan’tit just be leftfor 10 hours before the measurement is taken?



F.    Whatwouldbeagraphicmethodtodetectwhentherateofdiffusioninthegelatinwasat maximum and was beginning to slow?









G. Constructatablethatcomparesyourresultstotheaverageofyourclassmates’results,ifavailable. Indicate how many classmates’ results arerepresented in the average (N=?). Include it in your report. Are results similar? If not, what might explain the differencesin outcomes?










Exercise  4:  Transport  of Materials  through  Cell

Membranes – An Example of ActiveTransport



A. What are thetest substances?





B.   Why did a color change occur in the jar water? What does the color change indicate?





C.   Why did a color change occur in the dialysis bag? What does the color change indicate?









D.  What does the Benedict’s reagent test detect? What does the test of the jar water indicate? E.   What DID NOT diffuseacross the dialysis bag membrane? Why?



DISCUSSIO N                                                                                                                            


A.  Was your hypothesis supported or refuted?




B.   How might the dialysis membrane tubing be similar to a plasma membrane?






C.   What type of transport mechanism does this exercise simulate?









D.  What can be concluded from this exercise?







LABO RATO R Y S U MMA RY                                                                                                                           



What have you learned from doing this laboratory?


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