Core Assessment – Psychology 1315

 

  • Core areas: Critical Thinking, Communication, Empirical/Quantitative, Social Responsibility,

 

 

Critical Thinking (11)

 

Suppose an experienced clinician claims that a particular therapeutic technique does not work. His argument is based on the fact that his patients do not seem to respond to the technique when he uses it. Which of the following is true regarding this argument?        

It is probably a lie.        

It is based solely on personal experience.        

It is based on a scientific study.        

It is clear evidence that the therapy does not work.          

  

Suppose a researcher is interested in answering the question: “Does having children improve happiness?” How could this question be rewritten to be less ambiguous, while at the same time maintaining the essential nature of the question?        

Do children make people happy?        

Does having children affect income?        

Do parents rate their life satisfaction as higher than do comparable adults without children?        

Are couples who decide to not have children less happy?

  

The “Law of Effect” states that following a behavior with a reward will increase the behavior. Which of the following is an example of this?        

Becky feels hungry when she smells dinner in the oven.        

A child plays with a toy lawnmower after watching his father mow the lawn.        

A cat learns to avoid a child that pulls its tail.        

A trainer teaches a dog to sit by giving it a treat every time it sits on command.          

 

Which of the following is most likely to be a personal view, not based on empirical evidence?        

A principal says that teachers using a new method for teaching math have higher student test scores compared to other classes.        

After returning from giving birth, Staci says her cat has been misbehaving because he is jealous of the attention her new baby is getting.        

After keeping a dream journal for a month, Ryan says that his most vivid dreams are on nights where he watches television right before bedtime.        

All of the above are personal views.

 

One way to model drug abuse in animals is to allow rats to self-administer narcotics by pressing a lever. Suppose a new drug is injected into a group of rats that have been self-administering cocaine. After the injection, the rats show a significant reduction in the number of times they press the lever to receive cocaine. Which of the following would be a valid argument about the new drug based on this result?        

The drug may be an effective way to help a human fight a cocaine addiction.        

The drug will have no effect on humans.        

The drug will definitely reduce cravings in humans addicted to cocaine.        

The drug will be as addictive as cocaine for humans.

 

Which of the following facts is LEAST connected with the theory that sleep is necessary for the body and brain to restore themselves and fix accumulated damage?        

People often dream about events that occurred during the previous day.        

Sleep-deprived rats develop health problems.        

People who stay awake for long periods of time show impaired cognitive abilities.        

After a day of strenuous activity, people tend to sleep for longer than normal.          

 

Suppose a study compares the effectiveness of three treatments for bipolar disorder. Subjects receiving Treatment A had statistically fewer symptoms than those receiving Treatments B or C. Subjects receiving Treatments B and C were not statistically different, but subjects in all three treatment groups had fewer symptoms than no treatment controls. Which of the following conclusions should the researchers argue?        

Treatment A is the only effective treatment.        

All three treatments reduce symptoms, but Treatments B and C are the most effective.        

All three treatments reduce symptoms, but Treatment A is the most effective.        

None of the treatments are effective.      

 

Suppose a researcher is running a white and a brown lab rat through a maze. The white rat consistently has a faster time than the brown rat. Which of the following would be the best explanation for why it would be a mistake for the researcher to conclude that white lab rats are faster than brown lab rats?        

Physical traits, such as fur color, are not related to behavioral traits.        

All strains of lab rats are basically the same.        

The behavior of one white rat should not be generalized to all white rats.        

Mazes are not an appropriate measure of a rat’s ability.          

 

Female rat pups injected with testosterone soon after birth display male typical sexual behaviors when they reach maturity. Which of the following is the best conclusion to draw from this?        

Hormone levels during adulthood affect behavior.        

Male rat pups injected with estrogen would display female typical behaviors as adults.        

Male, but not female, behavior is determined by hormones.        

Hormone levels during early life can alter development and change adult behavior.          

 

Suppose an industrial/organizational psychologist conducts an experiment where employees from a variety of companies are randomly assigned to work from home or the office for several months. She finds that there was no statistical difference in the average productivity of the workers in the two groups. Which of the following is the best conclusion to be drawn from this result?        

Productivity will increase if companies allow employees to work from home.        

Productivity will decrease if companies allow employees to work from home.        

Productivity will remain the same if companies allow employees to work from home.        

There is the same number of distractions in an office as there is at home.          

 

Suppose a study finds a positive correlation between levels of a particular enzyme in the brain and the severity of mania in people suffering from bipolar disorder. Which of the following is the most accurate conclusion to make based on this evidence?        

Low levels of the enzyme cause bipolar disorder.        

There is no relationship between the enzyme and mania.        

Having low levels of the enzyme is associated with high mania.        

Having high levels of the enzyme is associated with mania.

 

Communication (9)

 

Suppose a graduate student is trying to decide what research question about psychotherapy to address in her dissertation. Which of the following would be a poor choice because it is ill-defined?        

Do patients on antidepressants while receiving psychoanalysis typically have better outcomes than those not taking the medication?        

Does psychoanalysis take too long?        

Does client-centered therapy typically have better outcomes for depressed patients compared to psychoanalysis?        

Do depressed patients receiving psychoanalysis generally have better outcomes than those who do not receive any treatment?

 

Research has shown that parents who are overly permissive with their children and do not set or enforce rules tend to have children who grow up to be selfish and lack social skills. Which of the following would be an oversimplified argument to make based on this research?        

Parenting style can affect emotional development.        

Teaching permissive parents to expect certain behaviors from their children may help the children to develop emotionally.        

Always getting his or her way as a child can make not getting his or her way as an adult difficult.        

If a person is selfish, it is because of his or her parents.

 

An example of an ill-defined research questions is: “Do adolescents with authoritarian parents engage in more ___________ on average, compared to other adolescents?”        

cheating at school        

unprotected sex        

immoral behavior        

violent behavior  

 

Suppose a researcher finds that for every 10 hours an adolescent spends playing video games in a week, his or her score on a hand-eye coordination test increases by 1 point. How could this relationship be described?

a direct relationship.

a nonlinear relationship.

an inverse relationship.

a proportional relationship.

 

Group A received progressive relaxation training prior to test-taking while Group B received no treatment. Group A is the ________ group, while Group B is the ________ group.

A. treatment; placebo

B. experimental; control                    

C. control; treatment

D. placebo; control

 

In a double-blind experiment,

A. only the participants know which group they are in.

B. only the researchers know which group the participants are in.

C. neither researchers nor participants know who is in the control or experimental group.

D. researchers do not have access to the results of the study.

 

The modern term for “mental retardation” is

A. intellectual disability.

B. intellectual difference.

C. intellectual exceptionality.

D. intellectual digression.

 

Dr. Ambrose feels that a particular intelligence test is probably culturally biased. Which of the following test questions would concern Dr. Ambrose the most?

A. Why do we need rain?

B. In which month of the year is the Super Bowl played?

C. What do we see in the sky at night?

D. In what way are balloons and airplanes the same?

 

The placebo effect refers to the

A. difference between experimental and control groups.

B. experimenter’s expectation that the experimental group will perform better.

C. finding that people feel better simply because they believe they are receiving medication.

D. effect the third variable problem has on the dependent variable.

 

 

Empirical and Quantitative Skills (14)

 

The ________ of a group is determined by adding up participants’ scores and dividing by the number of participants.

A. median score

B. standard deviation

C. correlation coefficient

D. mean score

 

Suppose a study found that, after 30 min of meditation, the average score on a focused attention test was 80, whereas the baseline average before meditation was 20. How could this result be described?

a 60-fold increase

a 60-fold decrease

a four-fold increase

a four-fold decrease

 

In order to scientifically study imprecise concepts such as love, sadness, and intelligence, psychologists create ___________, which are specific descriptions of how a variable is going to be measured.        

hypotheses        

operational definitions        

theories        

constructs        

correlations          

 

A correlational study is used to determine

A. cause and effect.

B. the relationship between variables.

C. the nature of the dependent and independent variables.

D. a representative population.

 

You believe that working women are happier than women who do not work outside the home. You predict that working women are less socially isolated than women who work at home. You have just formulated two…

A. representative samples.

B. operational definitions.

C. theories.

D. hypotheses.

 

A correlation coefficient indicates the ________ between two variables.

A. cause and effect relationship

B. degree of relationship                  

C. standard deviation

D. validity

 

A study indicated a strong positive correlation between two variables. This means that…

A. as one variable increases, the other decreases.

B. the correlation is equal to zero.

C. one variable causes the other variable to occur.

D. as one variable increases, the other also increases.                  

 

You want to determine the relationship between caffeine intake and performance on a mid-quarter exam. As students sit down to take the exam, you ask them to write the number of cups of tea, soda, or coffee they ingested two hours prior to the exam. You also obtain their exam scores. You calculate the correlation coefficient between the two variables to be +0.82. What can you conclude?

A. Higher caffeine consumption is related to higher exam scores.

B. Eighty-two percent of the students consumed caffeine prior to the exam.

C. Drinking coffee caused better scores.

D. The more caffeine students consumed, the worse they scored on the exam.

 

An experimenter wants to study the relationship between caffeine and reaction time. She assigns participants as follows: Group One receives 100 mg of caffeine; Group Two receives 200 mg of caffeine; Group Three receives 300 mg of caffeine; and, Group Four receives no caffeine. Twenty minutes later all participants complete the reaction-time test. Which group is the control group?

A. Group Four

B. Group Three

C. Group Two

D. Group One

 

Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 25, and 40. The mean of these five scores is

A. 10.

B. 15.

C. 20.

D. 25.

 

Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 25, and 40. The median of these five scores is

A. 10.

B. 15.

C. 20.

D. 25

 

If you find no relationship between two variables, what is the correlation coefficient?

A. +1.00

B. 0.00

C. –0.87

D. –0.99

 

In science, the term theory refers to…        

  1. a guess about the relationship between two variables.        
  2. the outcome of one or more experiments.        
  3. a general set of principles that attempts to explain what is known about a phenomenon.        
  4. a prediction about an experiment.          

 

Which research question would be best investigated by a correlational study?        

  1. What percent of married people cheat on their spouses?        
  2. Is there a relationship between body weight and personality?        
  3. Does a high-fat diet cause mice to die earlier?        
  4. Can hypnosis help people suffering from anorexia gain weight?      

    

 

Social Responsibility (9)

 

Which of the following represents a way that an individual with a bachelor’s degree in psychology could contribute positively to the welfare of the community?

provide therapy for the mentally ill

diagnose psychiatric patients at a local hospital

join a mentoring program to instill positive traits in adolescents

provide expert testimony at criminal trials

 

In which of the following jobs would an individual best be able to apply his or her knowledge of developmental psychology with the most positive outcome?

psychiatric hospital employee

factory manager

marketing professional

elementary school teacher

 

A researcher notices that Asian participants usually score higher than Americans on the introversion subscale of the personality test she uses. This difference is most likely due to        

genetic differences.        

experimenter bias.        

sociocultural differences.        

test bias.          

 

The bystander effect occurs because

A. we tend to look to the behavior of others for cues about what to do.

B. if no one else is helping, we assume help is not needed.

C. responsibility is diffused among witnesses.

D. All of these.

 

When compared with adolescents who do not play violent video games, adolescents who do play these games are

A. more likely to engage in delinquent acts.

B. more sensitive to real-life violence.

C. less likely to engage in aggressive behaviors.

D. more likely to be sensitive to the feelings of others.

 

Dr. McCall found that class projects were of poorer quality when students worked in groups compared to when each student did an individual project. This difference can be explained by the phenomenon of

A. inoculation.

B. social loafing.

C. mere exposure effect.

D. polarization.

 

Thinking that ethnic out-groups are not only different but are worse than your group is called

A. the social identity hypothesis.

B. ethnocentrism.

C. deindividuation.

D. normative social influence.

 

The idea of “do onto others as you would have them do onto you” best describes

A. attribution.

B. reciprocity.

C. ethnocentrism.

D. conformity.

 

People tend to view members of out-groups as more homogeneous (i.e., similar to each other) than the members of a group they belong to. Which of the following is the best example of this?        

A. A woman prefers spending time with men instead of other women.        

B. An American thinks that most Asians are smart.        

C. A parent thinks that all of his children are equally smart.        

D. football player admires some of the players on another team but dislikes the rest.

 

Core Assessment – Psychology 1315

 

  • Core areas: Critical Thinking, Communication, Empirical/Quantitative, Social Responsibility,

 

 

Critical Thinking (11)

 

Suppose an experienced clinician claims that a particular therapeutic technique does not work. His argument is based on the fact that his patients do not seem to respond to the technique when he uses it. Which of the following is true regarding this argument?        

It is probably a lie.        

It is based solely on personal experience.        

It is based on a scientific study.        

It is clear evidence that the therapy does not work.          

  

Suppose a researcher is interested in answering the question: “Does having children improve happiness?” How could this question be rewritten to be less ambiguous, while at the same time maintaining the essential nature of the question?        

Do children make people happy?        

Does having children affect income?        

Do parents rate their life satisfaction as higher than do comparable adults without children?        

Are couples who decide to not have children less happy?

  

The “Law of Effect” states that following a behavior with a reward will increase the behavior. Which of the following is an example of this?        

Becky feels hungry when she smells dinner in the oven.        

A child plays with a toy lawnmower after watching his father mow the lawn.        

A cat learns to avoid a child that pulls its tail.        

A trainer teaches a dog to sit by giving it a treat every time it sits on command.          

 

Which of the following is most likely to be a personal view, not based on empirical evidence?        

A principal says that teachers using a new method for teaching math have higher student test scores compared to other classes.        

After returning from giving birth, Staci says her cat has been misbehaving because he is jealous of the attention her new baby is getting.        

After keeping a dream journal for a month, Ryan says that his most vivid dreams are on nights where he watches television right before bedtime.        

All of the above are personal views.

 

One way to model drug abuse in animals is to allow rats to self-administer narcotics by pressing a lever. Suppose a new drug is injected into a group of rats that have been self-administering cocaine. After the injection, the rats show a significant reduction in the number of times they press the lever to receive cocaine. Which of the following would be a valid argument about the new drug based on this result?        

The drug may be an effective way to help a human fight a cocaine addiction.        

The drug will have no effect on humans.        

The drug will definitely reduce cravings in humans addicted to cocaine.        

The drug will be as addictive as cocaine for humans.

 

Which of the following facts is LEAST connected with the theory that sleep is necessary for the body and brain to restore themselves and fix accumulated damage?        

People often dream about events that occurred during the previous day.        

Sleep-deprived rats develop health problems.        

People who stay awake for long periods of time show impaired cognitive abilities.        

After a day of strenuous activity, people tend to sleep for longer than normal.          

 

Suppose a study compares the effectiveness of three treatments for bipolar disorder. Subjects receiving Treatment A had statistically fewer symptoms than those receiving Treatments B or C. Subjects receiving Treatments B and C were not statistically different, but subjects in all three treatment groups had fewer symptoms than no treatment controls. Which of the following conclusions should the researchers argue?        

Treatment A is the only effective treatment.        

All three treatments reduce symptoms, but Treatments B and C are the most effective.        

All three treatments reduce symptoms, but Treatment A is the most effective.        

None of the treatments are effective.      

 

Suppose a researcher is running a white and a brown lab rat through a maze. The white rat consistently has a faster time than the brown rat. Which of the following would be the best explanation for why it would be a mistake for the researcher to conclude that white lab rats are faster than brown lab rats?        

Physical traits, such as fur color, are not related to behavioral traits.        

All strains of lab rats are basically the same.        

The behavior of one white rat should not be generalized to all white rats.        

Mazes are not an appropriate measure of a rat’s ability.          

 

Female rat pups injected with testosterone soon after birth display male typical sexual behaviors when they reach maturity. Which of the following is the best conclusion to draw from this?        

Hormone levels during adulthood affect behavior.        

Male rat pups injected with estrogen would display female typical behaviors as adults.        

Male, but not female, behavior is determined by hormones.        

Hormone levels during early life can alter development and change adult behavior.          

 

Suppose an industrial/organizational psychologist conducts an experiment where employees from a variety of companies are randomly assigned to work from home or the office for several months. She finds that there was no statistical difference in the average productivity of the workers in the two groups. Which of the following is the best conclusion to be drawn from this result?        

Productivity will increase if companies allow employees to work from home.        

Productivity will decrease if companies allow employees to work from home.        

Productivity will remain the same if companies allow employees to work from home.        

There is the same number of distractions in an office as there is at home.          

 

Suppose a study finds a positive correlation between levels of a particular enzyme in the brain and the severity of mania in people suffering from bipolar disorder. Which of the following is the most accurate conclusion to make based on this evidence?        

Low levels of the enzyme cause bipolar disorder.        

There is no relationship between the enzyme and mania.        

Having low levels of the enzyme is associated with high mania.        

Having high levels of the enzyme is associated with mania.

 

Communication (9)

 

Suppose a graduate student is trying to decide what research question about psychotherapy to address in her dissertation. Which of the following would be a poor choice because it is ill-defined?        

Do patients on antidepressants while receiving psychoanalysis typically have better outcomes than those not taking the medication?        

Does psychoanalysis take too long?        

Does client-centered therapy typically have better outcomes for depressed patients compared to psychoanalysis?        

Do depressed patients receiving psychoanalysis generally have better outcomes than those who do not receive any treatment?

 

Research has shown that parents who are overly permissive with their children and do not set or enforce rules tend to have children who grow up to be selfish and lack social skills. Which of the following would be an oversimplified argument to make based on this research?        

Parenting style can affect emotional development.        

Teaching permissive parents to expect certain behaviors from their children may help the children to develop emotionally.        

Always getting his or her way as a child can make not getting his or her way as an adult difficult.        

If a person is selfish, it is because of his or her parents.

 

An example of an ill-defined research questions is: “Do adolescents with authoritarian parents engage in more ___________ on average, compared to other adolescents?”        

cheating at school        

unprotected sex        

immoral behavior        

violent behavior  

 

Suppose a researcher finds that for every 10 hours an adolescent spends playing video games in a week, his or her score on a hand-eye coordination test increases by 1 point. How could this relationship be described?

a direct relationship.

a nonlinear relationship.

an inverse relationship.

a proportional relationship.

 

Group A received progressive relaxation training prior to test-taking while Group B received no treatment. Group A is the ________ group, while Group B is the ________ group.

A. treatment; placebo

B. experimental; control                    

C. control; treatment

D. placebo; control

 

In a double-blind experiment,

A. only the participants know which group they are in.

B. only the researchers know which group the participants are in.

C. neither researchers nor participants know who is in the control or experimental group.

D. researchers do not have access to the results of the study.

 

The modern term for “mental retardation” is

A. intellectual disability.

B. intellectual difference.

C. intellectual exceptionality.

D. intellectual digression.

 

Dr. Ambrose feels that a particular intelligence test is probably culturally biased. Which of the following test questions would concern Dr. Ambrose the most?

A. Why do we need rain?

B. In which month of the year is the Super Bowl played?

C. What do we see in the sky at night?

D. In what way are balloons and airplanes the same?

 

The placebo effect refers to the

A. difference between experimental and control groups.

B. experimenter’s expectation that the experimental group will perform better.

C. finding that people feel better simply because they believe they are receiving medication.

D. effect the third variable problem has on the dependent variable.

 

 

Empirical and Quantitative Skills (14)

 

The ________ of a group is determined by adding up participants’ scores and dividing by the number of participants.

A. median score

B. standard deviation

C. correlation coefficient

D. mean score

 

Suppose a study found that, after 30 min of meditation, the average score on a focused attention test was 80, whereas the baseline average before meditation was 20. How could this result be described?

a 60-fold increase

a 60-fold decrease

a four-fold increase

a four-fold decrease

 

In order to scientifically study imprecise concepts such as love, sadness, and intelligence, psychologists create ___________, which are specific descriptions of how a variable is going to be measured.        

hypotheses        

operational definitions        

theories        

constructs        

correlations          

 

A correlational study is used to determine

A. cause and effect.

B. the relationship between variables.

C. the nature of the dependent and independent variables.

D. a representative population.

 

You believe that working women are happier than women who do not work outside the home. You predict that working women are less socially isolated than women who work at home. You have just formulated two…

A. representative samples.

B. operational definitions.

C. theories.

D. hypotheses.

 

A correlation coefficient indicates the ________ between two variables.

A. cause and effect relationship

B. degree of relationship                  

C. standard deviation

D. validity

 

A study indicated a strong positive correlation between two variables. This means that…

A. as one variable increases, the other decreases.

B. the correlation is equal to zero.

C. one variable causes the other variable to occur.

D. as one variable increases, the other also increases.                  

 

You want to determine the relationship between caffeine intake and performance on a mid-quarter exam. As students sit down to take the exam, you ask them to write the number of cups of tea, soda, or coffee they ingested two hours prior to the exam. You also obtain their exam scores. You calculate the correlation coefficient between the two variables to be +0.82. What can you conclude?

A. Higher caffeine consumption is related to higher exam scores.

B. Eighty-two percent of the students consumed caffeine prior to the exam.

C. Drinking coffee caused better scores.

D. The more caffeine students consumed, the worse they scored on the exam.

 

An experimenter wants to study the relationship between caffeine and reaction time. She assigns participants as follows: Group One receives 100 mg of caffeine; Group Two receives 200 mg of caffeine; Group Three receives 300 mg of caffeine; and, Group Four receives no caffeine. Twenty minutes later all participants complete the reaction-time test. Which group is the control group?

A. Group Four

B. Group Three

C. Group Two

D. Group One

 

Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 25, and 40. The mean of these five scores is

A. 10.

B. 15.

C. 20.

D. 25.

 

Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 25, and 40. The median of these five scores is

A. 10.

B. 15.

C. 20.

D. 25

 

If you find no relationship between two variables, what is the correlation coefficient?

A. +1.00

B. 0.00

C. –0.87

D. –0.99

 

In science, the term theory refers to…        

  1. a guess about the relationship between two variables.        
  2. the outcome of one or more experiments.        
  3. a general set of principles that attempts to explain what is known about a phenomenon.        
  4. a prediction about an experiment.          

 

Which research question would be best investigated by a correlational study?        

  1. What percent of married people cheat on their spouses?        
  2. Is there a relationship between body weight and personality?        
  3. Does a high-fat diet cause mice to die earlier?        
  4. Can hypnosis help people suffering from anorexia gain weight?      

    

 

Social Responsibility (9)

 

Which of the following represents a way that an individual with a bachelor’s degree in psychology could contribute positively to the welfare of the community?

provide therapy for the mentally ill

diagnose psychiatric patients at a local hospital

join a mentoring program to instill positive traits in adolescents

provide expert testimony at criminal trials

 

In which of the following jobs would an individual best be able to apply his or her knowledge of developmental psychology with the most positive outcome?

psychiatric hospital employee

factory manager

marketing professional

elementary school teacher

 

A researcher notices that Asian participants usually score higher than Americans on the introversion subscale of the personality test she uses. This difference is most likely due to        

genetic differences.        

experimenter bias.        

sociocultural differences.        

test bias.          

 

The bystander effect occurs because

A. we tend to look to the behavior of others for cues about what to do.

B. if no one else is helping, we assume help is not needed.

C. responsibility is diffused among witnesses.

D. All of these.

 

When compared with adolescents who do not play violent video games, adolescents who do play these games are

A. more likely to engage in delinquent acts.

B. more sensitive to real-life violence.

C. less likely to engage in aggressive behaviors.

D. more likely to be sensitive to the feelings of others.

 

Dr. McCall found that class projects were of poorer quality when students worked in groups compared to when each student did an individual project. This difference can be explained by the phenomenon of

A. inoculation.

B. social loafing.

C. mere exposure effect.

D. polarization.

 

Thinking that ethnic out-groups are not only different but are worse than your group is called

A. the social identity hypothesis.

B. ethnocentrism.

C. deindividuation.

D. normative social influence.

 

The idea of “do onto others as you would have them do onto you” best describes

A. attribution.

B. reciprocity.

C. ethnocentrism.

D. conformity.

 

People tend to view members of out-groups as more homogeneous (i.e., similar to each other) than the members of a group they belong to. Which of the following is the best example of this?        

A. A woman prefers spending time with men instead of other women.        

B. An American thinks that most Asians are smart.        

C. A parent thinks that all of his children are equally smart.        

D. football player admires some of the players on another team but dislikes the rest.

 

Core Assessment – Psychology 1315

 

  • Core areas: Critical Thinking, Communication, Empirical/Quantitative, Social Responsibility,

 

 

Critical Thinking (11)

 

Suppose an experienced clinician claims that a particular therapeutic technique does not work. His argument is based on the fact that his patients do not seem to respond to the technique when he uses it. Which of the following is true regarding this argument?        

It is probably a lie.        

It is based solely on personal experience.        

It is based on a scientific study.        

It is clear evidence that the therapy does not work.          

  

Suppose a researcher is interested in answering the question: “Does having children improve happiness?” How could this question be rewritten to be less ambiguous, while at the same time maintaining the essential nature of the question?        

Do children make people happy?        

Does having children affect income?        

Do parents rate their life satisfaction as higher than do comparable adults without children?        

Are couples who decide to not have children less happy?

  

The “Law of Effect” states that following a behavior with a reward will increase the behavior. Which of the following is an example of this?        

Becky feels hungry when she smells dinner in the oven.        

A child plays with a toy lawnmower after watching his father mow the lawn.        

A cat learns to avoid a child that pulls its tail.        

A trainer teaches a dog to sit by giving it a treat every time it sits on command.          

 

Which of the following is most likely to be a personal view, not based on empirical evidence?        

A principal says that teachers using a new method for teaching math have higher student test scores compared to other classes.        

After returning from giving birth, Staci says her cat has been misbehaving because he is jealous of the attention her new baby is getting.        

After keeping a dream journal for a month, Ryan says that his most vivid dreams are on nights where he watches television right before bedtime.        

All of the above are personal views.

 

One way to model drug abuse in animals is to allow rats to self-administer narcotics by pressing a lever. Suppose a new drug is injected into a group of rats that have been self-administering cocaine. After the injection, the rats show a significant reduction in the number of times they press the lever to receive cocaine. Which of the following would be a valid argument about the new drug based on this result?        

The drug may be an effective way to help a human fight a cocaine addiction.        

The drug will have no effect on humans.        

The drug will definitely reduce cravings in humans addicted to cocaine.        

The drug will be as addictive as cocaine for humans.

 

Which of the following facts is LEAST connected with the theory that sleep is necessary for the body and brain to restore themselves and fix accumulated damage?        

People often dream about events that occurred during the previous day.        

Sleep-deprived rats develop health problems.        

People who stay awake for long periods of time show impaired cognitive abilities.        

After a day of strenuous activity, people tend to sleep for longer than normal.          

 

Suppose a study compares the effectiveness of three treatments for bipolar disorder. Subjects receiving Treatment A had statistically fewer symptoms than those receiving Treatments B or C. Subjects receiving Treatments B and C were not statistically different, but subjects in all three treatment groups had fewer symptoms than no treatment controls. Which of the following conclusions should the researchers argue?        

Treatment A is the only effective treatment.        

All three treatments reduce symptoms, but Treatments B and C are the most effective.        

All three treatments reduce symptoms, but Treatment A is the most effective.        

None of the treatments are effective.      

 

Suppose a researcher is running a white and a brown lab rat through a maze. The white rat consistently has a faster time than the brown rat. Which of the following would be the best explanation for why it would be a mistake for the researcher to conclude that white lab rats are faster than brown lab rats?        

Physical traits, such as fur color, are not related to behavioral traits.        

All strains of lab rats are basically the same.        

The behavior of one white rat should not be generalized to all white rats.        

Mazes are not an appropriate measure of a rat’s ability.          

 

Female rat pups injected with testosterone soon after birth display male typical sexual behaviors when they reach maturity. Which of the following is the best conclusion to draw from this?        

Hormone levels during adulthood affect behavior.        

Male rat pups injected with estrogen would display female typical behaviors as adults.        

Male, but not female, behavior is determined by hormones.        

Hormone levels during early life can alter development and change adult behavior.          

 

Suppose an industrial/organizational psychologist conducts an experiment where employees from a variety of companies are randomly assigned to work from home or the office for several months. She finds that there was no statistical difference in the average productivity of the workers in the two groups. Which of the following is the best conclusion to be drawn from this result?        

Productivity will increase if companies allow employees to work from home.        

Productivity will decrease if companies allow employees to work from home.        

Productivity will remain the same if companies allow employees to work from home.        

There is the same number of distractions in an office as there is at home.          

 

Suppose a study finds a positive correlation between levels of a particular enzyme in the brain and the severity of mania in people suffering from bipolar disorder. Which of the following is the most accurate conclusion to make based on this evidence?        

Low levels of the enzyme cause bipolar disorder.        

There is no relationship between the enzyme and mania.        

Having low levels of the enzyme is associated with high mania.        

Having high levels of the enzyme is associated with mania.

 

Communication (9)

 

Suppose a graduate student is trying to decide what research question about psychotherapy to address in her dissertation. Which of the following would be a poor choice because it is ill-defined?        

Do patients on antidepressants while receiving psychoanalysis typically have better outcomes than those not taking the medication?        

Does psychoanalysis take too long?        

Does client-centered therapy typically have better outcomes for depressed patients compared to psychoanalysis?        

Do depressed patients receiving psychoanalysis generally have better outcomes than those who do not receive any treatment?

 

Research has shown that parents who are overly permissive with their children and do not set or enforce rules tend to have children who grow up to be selfish and lack social skills. Which of the following would be an oversimplified argument to make based on this research?        

Parenting style can affect emotional development.        

Teaching permissive parents to expect certain behaviors from their children may help the children to develop emotionally.        

Always getting his or her way as a child can make not getting his or her way as an adult difficult.        

If a person is selfish, it is because of his or her parents.

 

An example of an ill-defined research questions is: “Do adolescents with authoritarian parents engage in more ___________ on average, compared to other adolescents?”        

cheating at school        

unprotected sex        

immoral behavior        

violent behavior  

 

Suppose a researcher finds that for every 10 hours an adolescent spends playing video games in a week, his or her score on a hand-eye coordination test increases by 1 point. How could this relationship be described?

a direct relationship.

a nonlinear relationship.

an inverse relationship.

a proportional relationship.

 

Group A received progressive relaxation training prior to test-taking while Group B received no treatment. Group A is the ________ group, while Group B is the ________ group.

A. treatment; placebo

B. experimental; control                    

C. control; treatment

D. placebo; control

 

In a double-blind experiment,

A. only the participants know which group they are in.

B. only the researchers know which group the participants are in.

C. neither researchers nor participants know who is in the control or experimental group.

D. researchers do not have access to the results of the study.

 

The modern term for “mental retardation” is

A. intellectual disability.

B. intellectual difference.

C. intellectual exceptionality.

D. intellectual digression.

 

Dr. Ambrose feels that a particular intelligence test is probably culturally biased. Which of the following test questions would concern Dr. Ambrose the most?

A. Why do we need rain?

B. In which month of the year is the Super Bowl played?

C. What do we see in the sky at night?

D. In what way are balloons and airplanes the same?

 

The placebo effect refers to the

A. difference between experimental and control groups.

B. experimenter’s expectation that the experimental group will perform better.

C. finding that people feel better simply because they believe they are receiving medication.

D. effect the third variable problem has on the dependent variable.

 

 

Empirical and Quantitative Skills (14)

 

The ________ of a group is determined by adding up participants’ scores and dividing by the number of participants.

A. median score

B. standard deviation

C. correlation coefficient

D. mean score

 

Suppose a study found that, after 30 min of meditation, the average score on a focused attention test was 80, whereas the baseline average before meditation was 20. How could this result be described?

a 60-fold increase

a 60-fold decrease

a four-fold increase

a four-fold decrease

 

In order to scientifically study imprecise concepts such as love, sadness, and intelligence, psychologists create ___________, which are specific descriptions of how a variable is going to be measured.        

hypotheses        

operational definitions        

theories        

constructs        

correlations          

 

A correlational study is used to determine

A. cause and effect.

B. the relationship between variables.

C. the nature of the dependent and independent variables.

D. a representative population.

 

You believe that working women are happier than women who do not work outside the home. You predict that working women are less socially isolated than women who work at home. You have just formulated two…

A. representative samples.

B. operational definitions.

C. theories.

D. hypotheses.

 

A correlation coefficient indicates the ________ between two variables.

A. cause and effect relationship

B. degree of relationship                  

C. standard deviation

D. validity

 

A study indicated a strong positive correlation between two variables. This means that…

A. as one variable increases, the other decreases.

B. the correlation is equal to zero.

C. one variable causes the other variable to occur.

D. as one variable increases, the other also increases.                  

 

You want to determine the relationship between caffeine intake and performance on a mid-quarter exam. As students sit down to take the exam, you ask them to write the number of cups of tea, soda, or coffee they ingested two hours prior to the exam. You also obtain their exam scores. You calculate the correlation coefficient between the two variables to be +0.82. What can you conclude?

A. Higher caffeine consumption is related to higher exam scores.

B. Eighty-two percent of the students consumed caffeine prior to the exam.

C. Drinking coffee caused better scores.

D. The more caffeine students consumed, the worse they scored on the exam.

 

An experimenter wants to study the relationship between caffeine and reaction time. She assigns participants as follows: Group One receives 100 mg of caffeine; Group Two receives 200 mg of caffeine; Group Three receives 300 mg of caffeine; and, Group Four receives no caffeine. Twenty minutes later all participants complete the reaction-time test. Which group is the control group?

A. Group Four

B. Group Three

C. Group Two

D. Group One

 

Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 25, and 40. The mean of these five scores is

A. 10.

B. 15.

C. 20.

D. 25.

 

Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 25, and 40. The median of these five scores is

A. 10.

B. 15.

C. 20.

D. 25

 

If you find no relationship between two variables, what is the correlation coefficient?

A. +1.00

B. 0.00

C. –0.87

D. –0.99

 

In science, the term theory refers to…        

  1. a guess about the relationship between two variables.        
  2. the outcome of one or more experiments.        
  3. a general set of principles that attempts to explain what is known about a phenomenon.        
  4. a prediction about an experiment.          

 

Which research question would be best investigated by a correlational study?        

  1. What percent of married people cheat on their spouses?        
  2. Is there a relationship between body weight and personality?        
  3. Does a high-fat diet cause mice to die earlier?        
  4. Can hypnosis help people suffering from anorexia gain weight?      

    

 

Social Responsibility (9)

 

Which of the following represents a way that an individual with a bachelor’s degree in psychology could contribute positively to the welfare of the community?

provide therapy for the mentally ill

diagnose psychiatric patients at a local hospital

join a mentoring program to instill positive traits in adolescents

provide expert testimony at criminal trials

 

In which of the following jobs would an individual best be able to apply his or her knowledge of developmental psychology with the most positive outcome?

psychiatric hospital employee

factory manager

marketing professional

elementary school teacher

 

A researcher notices that Asian participants usually score higher than Americans on the introversion subscale of the personality test she uses. This difference is most likely due to        

genetic differences.        

experimenter bias.        

sociocultural differences.        

test bias.          

 

The bystander effect occurs because

A. we tend to look to the behavior of others for cues about what to do.

B. if no one else is helping, we assume help is not needed.

C. responsibility is diffused among witnesses.

D. All of these.

 

When compared with adolescents who do not play violent video games, adolescents who do play these games are

A. more likely to engage in delinquent acts.

B. more sensitive to real-life violence.

C. less likely to engage in aggressive behaviors.

D. more likely to be sensitive to the feelings of others.

 

Dr. McCall found that class projects were of poorer quality when students worked in groups compared to when each student did an individual project. This difference can be explained by the phenomenon of

A. inoculation.

B. social loafing.

C. mere exposure effect.

D. polarization.

 

Thinking that ethnic out-groups are not only different but are worse than your group is called

A. the social identity hypothesis.

B. ethnocentrism.

C. deindividuation.

D. normative social influence.

 

The idea of “do onto others as you would have them do onto you” best describes

A. attribution.

B. reciprocity.

C. ethnocentrism.

D. conformity.

 

People tend to view members of out-groups as more homogeneous (i.e., similar to each other) than the members of a group they belong to. Which of the following is the best example of this?        

A. A woman prefers spending time with men instead of other women.        

B. An American thinks that most Asians are smart.        

C. A parent thinks that all of his children are equally smart.        

D. football player admires some of the players on another team but dislikes the rest.

 

Core Assessment – Psychology 1315

Core Assessment – Psychology 1315 Core Assessment – Psychology 1315

 

   
  • Core areas: Critical Thinking, Communication, Empirical/Quantitative, Social Responsibility,
  • Core areas: Critical Thinking, Communication, Empirical/Quantitative, Social Responsibility,
  • Core areas: Critical Thinking, Communication, Empirical/Quantitative, Social Responsibility, Core areas: Critical Thinking, Communication, Empirical/Quantitative, Social Responsibility,

     

     

     

     

     

    Critical Thinking (11)

    Critical Thinking (11) Critical Thinking (11)

     

     

    Suppose an experienced clinician claims that a particular therapeutic technique does not work. His argument is based on the fact that his patients do not seem to respond to the technique when he uses it. Which of the following is true regarding this argument?        

    Suppose an experienced clinician claims that a particular therapeutic technique does not work. His argument is based on the fact that his patients do not seem to respond to the technique when he uses it. Which of the following is true regarding this argument?         Suppose an experienced clinician claims that a particular therapeutic technique does not work. His argument is based on the fact that his patients do not seem to respond to the technique when he uses it. Which of the following is true regarding this argument?        

    It is probably a lie.        

    It is probably a lie.        

    It is based solely on personal experience.         It is based solely on personal experience.         It is based solely on personal experience.

    It is based on a scientific study.        

    It is based on a scientific study.        

    It is clear evidence that the therapy does not work.          

    It is clear evidence that the therapy does not work.          

      

      

    Suppose a researcher is interested in answering the question: “Does having children improve happiness?” How could this question be rewritten to be less ambiguous, while at the same time maintaining the essential nature of the question?        

    Suppose a researcher is interested in answering the question: “Does having children improve happiness?” How could this question be rewritten to be less ambiguous, while at the same time maintaining the essential nature of the question?         Suppose a researcher is interested in answering the question: “Does having children improve happiness?” How could this question be rewritten to be less ambiguous, while at the same time maintaining the essential nature of the question?        

    Do children make people happy?        

    Do children make people happy?        

    Does having children affect income?        

    Does having children affect income?        

    Do parents rate their life satisfaction as higher than do comparable adults without children?         Do parents rate their life satisfaction as higher than do comparable adults without children?         Do parents rate their life satisfaction as higher than do comparable adults without children?

    Are couples who decide to not have children less happy?

    Are couples who decide to not have children less happy?

      

      

    The “Law of Effect” states that following a behavior with a reward will increase the behavior. Which of the following is an example of this?        

    The “Law of Effect” states that following a behavior with a reward will increase the behavior. Which of the following is an example of this?         The “Law of Effect” states that following a behavior with a reward will increase the behavior. Which of the following is an example of this?        

    Becky feels hungry when she smells dinner in the oven.        

    Becky feels hungry when she smells dinner in the oven.        

    A child plays with a toy lawnmower after watching his father mow the lawn.        

    A child plays with a toy lawnmower after watching his father mow the lawn.        

    A cat learns to avoid a child that pulls its tail.        

    A cat learns to avoid a child that pulls its tail.        

    A trainer teaches a dog to sit by giving it a treat every time it sits on command.           A trainer teaches a dog to sit by giving it a treat every time it sits on command.           A trainer teaches a dog to sit by giving it a treat every time it sits on command.

     

     

    Which of the following is most likely to be a personal view, not based on empirical evidence?        

    Which of the following is most likely to be a personal view, not based on empirical evidence?         Which of the following is most likely to be a personal view, not based on empirical evidence?        

    A principal says that teachers using a new method for teaching math have higher student test scores compared to other classes.        

    A principal says that teachers using a new method for teaching math have higher student test scores compared to other classes.        

    After returning from giving birth, Staci says her cat has been misbehaving because he is jealous of the attention her new baby is getting.         After returning from giving birth, Staci says her cat has been misbehaving because he is jealous of the attention her new baby is getting.         After returning from giving birth, Staci says her cat has been misbehaving because he is jealous of the attention her new baby is getting.

    After keeping a dream journal for a month, Ryan says that his most vivid dreams are on nights where he watches television right before bedtime.        

    After keeping a dream journal for a month, Ryan says that his most vivid dreams are on nights where he watches television right before bedtime.        

    All of the above are personal views.

    All of the above are personal views.

     

     

    One way to model drug abuse in animals is to allow rats to self-administer narcotics by pressing a lever. Suppose a new drug is injected into a group of rats that have been self-administering cocaine. After the injection, the rats show a significant reduction in the number of times they press the lever to receive cocaine. Which of the following would be a valid argument about the new drug based on this result?        

    One way to model drug abuse in animals is to allow rats to self-administer narcotics by pressing a lever. Suppose a new drug is injected into a group of rats that have been self-administering cocaine. After the injection, the rats show a significant reduction in the number of times they press the lever to receive cocaine. Which of the following would be a valid argument about the new drug based on this result?         One way to model drug abuse in animals is to allow rats to self-administer narcotics by pressing a lever. Suppose a new drug is injected into a group of rats that have been self-administering cocaine. After the injection, the rats show a significant reduction in the number of times they press the lever to receive cocaine. Which of the following would be a valid argument about the new drug based on this result?        

    The drug may be an effective way to help a human fight a cocaine addiction.         The drug may be an effective way to help a human fight a cocaine addiction.         The drug may be an effective way to help a human fight a cocaine addiction.

    The drug will have no effect on humans.        

    The drug will have no effect on humans.        

    The drug will definitely reduce cravings in humans addicted to cocaine.        

    The drug will definitely reduce cravings in humans addicted to cocaine.        

    The drug will be as addictive as cocaine for humans.

    The drug will be as addictive as cocaine for humans.

     

     

    Which of the following facts is LEAST connected with the theory that sleep is necessary for the body and brain to restore themselves and fix accumulated damage?        

    Which of the following facts is LEAST connected with the theory that sleep is necessary for the body and brain to restore themselves and fix accumulated damage?         Which of the following facts is LEAST connected with the theory that sleep is necessary for the body and brain to restore themselves and fix accumulated damage?        

    People often dream about events that occurred during the previous day.         People often dream about events that occurred during the previous day.         People often dream about events that occurred during the previous day.

    Sleep-deprived rats develop health problems.        

    Sleep-deprived rats develop health problems.        

    People who stay awake for long periods of time show impaired cognitive abilities.        

    People who stay awake for long periods of time show impaired cognitive abilities.        

    After a day of strenuous activity, people tend to sleep for longer than normal.          

    After a day of strenuous activity, people tend to sleep for longer than normal.          

     

     

    Suppose a study compares the effectiveness of three treatments for bipolar disorder. Subjects receiving Treatment A had statistically fewer symptoms than those receiving Treatments B or C. Subjects receiving Treatments B and C were not statistically different, but subjects in all three treatment groups had fewer symptoms than no treatment controls. Which of the following conclusions should the researchers argue?        

    Suppose a study compares the effectiveness of three treatments for bipolar disorder. Subjects receiving Treatment A had statistically fewer symptoms than those receiving Treatments B or C. Subjects receiving Treatments B and C were not statistically different, but subjects in all three treatment groups had fewer symptoms than no treatment controls. Which of the following conclusions should the researchers argue?         Suppose a study compares the effectiveness of three treatments for bipolar disorder. Subjects receiving Treatment A had statistically fewer symptoms than those receiving Treatments B or C. Subjects receiving Treatments B and C were not statistically different, but subjects in all three treatment groups had fewer symptoms than no treatment controls. Which of the following conclusions should the researchers argue?        

    Treatment A is the only effective treatment.         Treatment A is the only effective treatment.         Treatment A is the only effective treatment.

    All three treatments reduce symptoms, but Treatments B and C are the most effective.        

    All three treatments reduce symptoms, but Treatments B and C are the most effective.        

    All three treatments reduce symptoms, but Treatment A is the most effective.        

    All three treatments reduce symptoms, but Treatment A is the most effective.        

    None of the treatments are effective.      

    None of the treatments are effective.      

     

     

    Suppose a researcher is running a white and a brown lab rat through a maze. The white rat consistently has a faster time than the brown rat. Which of the following would be the best explanation for why it would be a mistake for the researcher to conclude that white lab rats are faster than brown lab rats?        

    Suppose a researcher is running a white and a brown lab rat through a maze. The white rat consistently has a faster time than the brown rat. Which of the following would be the best explanation for why it would be a mistake for the researcher to conclude that white lab rats are faster than brown lab rats?         Suppose a researcher is running a white and a brown lab rat through a maze. The white rat consistently has a faster time than the brown rat. Which of the following would be the best explanation for why it would be a mistake for the researcher to conclude that white lab rats are faster than brown lab rats?        

    Physical traits, such as fur color, are not related to behavioral traits.        

    Physical traits, such as fur color, are not related to behavioral traits.        

    All strains of lab rats are basically the same.        

    All strains of lab rats are basically the same.        

    The behavior of one white rat should not be generalized to all white rats.         The behavior of one white rat should not be generalized to all white rats.         The behavior of one white rat should not be generalized to all white rats.

    Mazes are not an appropriate measure of a rat’s ability.          

    Mazes are not an appropriate measure of a rat’s ability.          

     

     

    Female rat pups injected with testosterone soon after birth display male typical sexual behaviors when they reach maturity. Which of the following is the best conclusion to draw from this?        

    Female rat pups injected with testosterone soon after birth display male typical sexual behaviors when they reach maturity. Which of the following is the best conclusion to draw from this?         Female rat pups injected with testosterone soon after birth display male typical sexual behaviors when they reach maturity. Which of the following is the best conclusion to draw from this?        

    Hormone levels during adulthood affect behavior.        

    Hormone levels during adulthood affect behavior.        

    Male rat pups injected with estrogen would display female typical behaviors as adults.        

    Male rat pups injected with estrogen would display female typical behaviors as adults.        

    Male, but not female, behavior is determined by hormones.        

    Male, but not female, behavior is determined by hormones.        

    Hormone levels during early life can alter development and change adult behavior.           Hormone levels during early life can alter development and change adult behavior.           Hormone levels during early life can alter development and change adult behavior.

     

     

    Suppose an industrial/organizational psychologist conducts an experiment where employees from a variety of companies are randomly assigned to work from home or the office for several months. She finds that there was no statistical difference in the average productivity of the workers in the two groups. Which of the following is the best conclusion to be drawn from this result?        

    Suppose an industrial/organizational psychologist conducts an experiment where employees from a variety of companies are randomly assigned to work from home or the office for several months. She finds that there was no statistical difference in the average productivity of the workers in the two groups. Which of the following is the best conclusion to be drawn from this result?         Suppose an industrial/organizational psychologist conducts an experiment where employees from a variety of companies are randomly assigned to work from home or the office for several months. She finds that there was no statistical difference in the average productivity of the workers in the two groups. Which of the following is the best conclusion to be drawn from this result?        

    Productivity will increase if companies allow employees to work from home.        

    Productivity will increase if companies allow employees to work from home.        

    Productivity will decrease if companies allow employees to work from home.        

    Productivity will decrease if companies allow employees to work from home.        

    Productivity will remain the same if companies allow employees to work from home.         Productivity will remain the same if companies allow employees to work from home.         Productivity will remain the same if companies allow employees to work from home.

    There is the same number of distractions in an office as there is at home.          

    There is the same number of distractions in an office as there is at home.          

     

     

    Suppose a study finds a positive correlation between levels of a particular enzyme in the brain and the severity of mania in people suffering from bipolar disorder. Which of the following is the most accurate conclusion to make based on this evidence?        

    Suppose a study finds a positive correlation between levels of a particular enzyme in the brain and the severity of mania in people suffering from bipolar disorder. Which of the following is the most accurate conclusion to make based on this evidence?         Suppose a study finds a positive correlation between levels of a particular enzyme in the brain and the severity of mania in people suffering from bipolar disorder. Which of the following is the most accurate conclusion to make based on this evidence?        

    Low levels of the enzyme cause bipolar disorder.        

    Low levels of the enzyme cause bipolar disorder.        

    There is no relationship between the enzyme and mania.        

    There is no relationship between the enzyme and mania.        

    Having low levels of the enzyme is associated with high mania.        

    Having low levels of the enzyme is associated with high mania.        

    Having high levels of the enzyme is associated with mania.

     

    Having high levels of the enzyme is associated with mania. Having high levels of the enzyme is associated with mania.

     

     

    Communication (9)

    Communication (9) Communication (9)

     

     

    Suppose a graduate student is trying to decide what research question about psychotherapy to address in her dissertation. Which of the following would be a poor choice because it is ill-defined?        

    Suppose a graduate student is trying to decide what research question about psychotherapy to address in her dissertation. Which of the following would be a poor choice because it is ill-defined?         Suppose a graduate student is trying to decide what research question about psychotherapy to address in her dissertation. Which of the following would be a poor choice because it is ill-defined?        

    Do patients on antidepressants while receiving psychoanalysis typically have better outcomes than those not taking the medication?        

    Do patients on antidepressants while receiving psychoanalysis typically have better outcomes than those not taking the medication?        

    Does psychoanalysis take too long?        

    Does psychoanalysis take too long?        

    Does client-centered therapy typically have better outcomes for depressed patients compared to psychoanalysis?        

    Does client-centered therapy typically have better outcomes for depressed patients compared to psychoanalysis?        

    Do depressed patients receiving psychoanalysis generally have better outcomes than those who do not receive any treatment?

    Do depressed patients receiving psychoanalysis generally have better outcomes than those who do not receive any treatment?

     

     

    Research has shown that parents who are overly permissive with their children and do not set or enforce rules tend to have children who grow up to be selfish and lack social skills. Which of the following would be an oversimplified argument to make based on this research?        

    Research has shown that parents who are overly permissive with their children and do not set or enforce rules tend to have children who grow up to be selfish and lack social skills. Which of the following would be an oversimplified argument to make based on this research?         Research has shown that parents who are overly permissive with their children and do not set or enforce rules tend to have children who grow up to be selfish and lack social skills. Which of the following would be an oversimplified argument to make based on this research?        

    Parenting style can affect emotional development.        

    Parenting style can affect emotional development.        

    Teaching permissive parents to expect certain behaviors from their children may help the children to develop emotionally.        

    Teaching permissive parents to expect certain behaviors from their children may help the children to develop emotionally.        

    Always getting his or her way as a child can make not getting his or her way as an adult difficult.        

    Always getting his or her way as a child can make not getting his or her way as an adult difficult.        

    If a person is selfish, it is because of his or her parents.

    If a person is selfish, it is because of his or her parents.

     

     

    An example of an ill-defined research questions is: “Do adolescents with authoritarian parents engage in more ___________ on average, compared to other adolescents?”        

    An example of an ill-defined research questions is: “Do adolescents with authoritarian parents engage in more ___________ on average, compared to other adolescents?”         An example of an ill-defined research questions is: “Do adolescents with authoritarian parents engage in more ___________ on average, compared to other adolescents?”        

    cheating at school        

    cheating at school        

    unprotected sex        

    unprotected sex        

    immoral behavior        

    immoral behavior        

    violent behavior  

    violent behavior  

     

     

    Suppose a researcher finds that for every 10 hours an adolescent spends playing video games in a week, his or her score on a hand-eye coordination test increases by 1 point. How could this relationship be described?

    Suppose a researcher finds that for every 10 hours an adolescent spends playing video games in a week, his or her score on a hand-eye coordination test increases by 1 point. How could this relationship be described? Suppose a researcher finds that for every 10 hours an adolescent spends playing video games in a week, his or her score on a hand-eye coordination test increases by 1 point. How could this relationship be described?

    a direct relationship.

    a direct relationship.

    a nonlinear relationship.

    a nonlinear relationship.

    an inverse relationship.

    an inverse relationship.

    a proportional relationship.

    a proportional relationship.

     

     

    Group A received progressive relaxation training prior to test-taking while Group B received no treatment. Group A is the ________ group, while Group B is the ________ group.

    Group A received progressive relaxation training prior to test-taking while Group B received no treatment. Group A is the ________ group, while Group B is the ________ group. Group A received progressive relaxation training prior to test-taking while Group B received no treatment. Group A is the ________ group, while Group B is the ________ group.

    A. treatment; placebo

    A. treatment; placebo

    B. experimental; control                    

    B. experimental; control                    

    C. control; treatment

    C. control; treatment

    D. placebo; control

    D. placebo; control

     

     

    In a double-blind experiment,

    In a double-blind experiment, In a double-blind experiment,

    A. only the participants know which group they are in.

    A. only the participants know which group they are in.

    B. only the researchers know which group the participants are in.

    B. only the researchers know which group the participants are in.

    C. neither researchers nor participants know who is in the control or experimental group.

    C. neither researchers nor participants know who is in the control or experimental group.

    D. researchers do not have access to the results of the study.

    D. researchers do not have access to the results of the study.

     

     

    The modern term for “mental retardation” is

    The modern term for “mental retardation” is The modern term for “mental retardation” is

    A. intellectual disability.

    A. intellectual disability.

    B. intellectual difference.

    B. intellectual difference.

    C. intellectual exceptionality.

    C. intellectual exceptionality.

    D. intellectual digression.

    D. intellectual digression.

     

     

    Dr. Ambrose feels that a particular intelligence test is probably culturally biased. Which of the following test questions would concern Dr. Ambrose the most? Dr. Ambrose feels that a particular intelligence test is probably culturally biased. Which of the following test questions would concern Dr. Ambrose the most? Dr. Ambrose feels that a particular intelligence test is probably culturally biased. Which of the following test questions would concern Dr. Ambrose the most? Dr. Ambrose feels that a particular intelligence test is probably culturally biased. Which of the following test questions would concern Dr. Ambrose the most?

    A. Why do we need rain? A. Why do we need rain?

    B. In which month of the year is the Super Bowl played? B. In which month of the year is the Super Bowl played?

    C. What do we see in the sky at night? C. What do we see in the sky at night?

    D. In what way are balloons and airplanes the same? D. In what way are balloons and airplanes the same?

     

     

    The placebo effect refers to the

    The placebo effect refers to the The placebo effect refers to the

    A. difference between experimental and control groups.

    A. difference between experimental and control groups.

    B. experimenter’s expectation that the experimental group will perform better.

    B. experimenter’s expectation that the experimental group will perform better.

    C. finding that people feel better simply because they believe they are receiving medication.

    C. finding that people feel better simply because they believe they are receiving medication.

    D. effect the third variable problem has on the dependent variable.

    D. effect the third variable problem has on the dependent variable.  

     

     

    Empirical and Quantitative Skills (14)

    Empirical and Quantitative Skills (14) Empirical and Quantitative Skills (14)

     

     

    The ________ of a group is determined by adding up participants’ scores and dividing by the number of participants.

    The ________ of a group is determined by adding up participants’ scores and dividing by the number of participants. The ________ of a group is determined by adding up participants’ scores and dividing by the number of participants.

    A. median score

    A. median score

    B. standard deviation

    B. standard deviation

    C. correlation coefficient

    C. correlation coefficient

    D. mean score

    D. mean score

     

     

    Suppose a study found that, after 30 min of meditation, the average score on a focused attention test was 80, whereas the baseline average before meditation was 20. How could this result be described?

    Suppose a study found that, after 30 min of meditation, the average score on a focused attention test was 80, whereas the baseline average before meditation was 20. How could this result be described? Suppose a study found that, after 30 min of meditation, the average score on a focused attention test was 80, whereas the baseline average before meditation was 20. How could this result be described?

    a 60-fold increase

    a 60-fold increase

    a 60-fold decrease

    a 60-fold decrease

    a four-fold increase

    a four-fold increase

    a four-fold decrease

    a four-fold decrease

     

     

    In order to scientifically study imprecise concepts such as love, sadness, and intelligence, psychologists create ___________, which are specific descriptions of how a variable is going to be measured.        

    In order to scientifically study imprecise concepts such as love, sadness, and intelligence, psychologists create ___________, which are specific descriptions of how a variable is going to be measured.         In order to scientifically study imprecise concepts such as love, sadness, and intelligence, psychologists create ___________, which are specific descriptions of how a variable is going to be measured.        

    hypotheses        

    hypotheses        

    operational definitions        

    operational definitions        

    theories        

    theories        

    constructs        

    constructs        

    correlations          

    correlations          

     

     

    A correlational study is used to determine

    A correlational study is used to determine A correlational study is used to determine

    A. cause and effect.

    A. cause and effect.

    B. the relationship between variables.

    B. the relationship between variables.

    C. the nature of the dependent and independent variables.

    C. the nature of the dependent and independent variables.

    D. a representative population.

    D. a representative population.

     

     

    You believe that working women are happier than women who do not work outside the home. You predict that working women are less socially isolated than women who work at home. You have just formulated two…

    You believe that working women are happier than women who do not work outside the home. You predict that working women are less socially isolated than women who work at home. You have just formulated two… You believe that working women are happier than women who do not work outside the home. You predict that working women are less socially isolated than women who work at home. You have just formulated two…

    A. representative samples.

    A. representative samples.

    B. operational definitions.

    B. operational definitions.

    C. theories.

    C. theories.

    D. hypotheses.

    D. hypotheses.

     

     

    A correlation coefficient indicates the ________ between two variables.

    A correlation coefficient indicates the ________ between two variables. A correlation coefficient indicates the ________ between two variables.

    A. cause and effect relationship

    A. cause and effect relationship

    B. degree of relationship                  

    B. degree of relationship                  

    C. standard deviation

    C. standard deviation

    D. validity

    D. validity

     

     

    A study indicated a strong positive correlation between two variables. This means that…

    A study indicated a strong positive correlation between two variables. This means that… A study indicated a strong positive correlation between two variables. This means that…

    A. as one variable increases, the other decreases.

    A. as one variable increases, the other decreases.

    B. the correlation is equal to zero.

    B. the correlation is equal to zero.

    C. one variable causes the other variable to occur.

    C. one variable causes the other variable to occur.

    D. as one variable increases, the other also increases.                  

    D. as one variable increases, the other also increases.                  

     

     

    You want to determine the relationship between caffeine intake and performance on a mid-quarter exam. As students sit down to take the exam, you ask them to write the number of cups of tea, soda, or coffee they ingested two hours prior to the exam. You also obtain their exam scores. You calculate the correlation coefficient between the two variables to be +0.82. What can you conclude?

    You want to determine the relationship between caffeine intake and performance on a mid-quarter exam. As students sit down to take the exam, you ask them to write the number of cups of tea, soda, or coffee they ingested two hours prior to the exam. You also obtain their exam scores. You calculate the correlation coefficient between the two variables to be +0.82. What can you conclude? You want to determine the relationship between caffeine intake and performance on a mid-quarter exam. As students sit down to take the exam, you ask them to write the number of cups of tea, soda, or coffee they ingested two hours prior to the exam. You also obtain their exam scores. You calculate the correlation coefficient between the two variables to be +0.82. What can you conclude?

    A. Higher caffeine consumption is related to higher exam scores.

    A. Higher caffeine consumption is related to higher exam scores.

    B. Eighty-two percent of the students consumed caffeine prior to the exam.

    B. Eighty-two percent of the students consumed caffeine prior to the exam.

    C. Drinking coffee caused better scores.

    C. Drinking coffee caused better scores.

    D. The more caffeine students consumed, the worse they scored on the exam.

    D. The more caffeine students consumed, the worse they scored on the exam.

     

     

    An experimenter wants to study the relationship between caffeine and reaction time. She assigns participants as follows: Group One receives 100 mg of caffeine; Group Two receives 200 mg of caffeine; Group Three receives 300 mg of caffeine; and, Group Four receives no caffeine. Twenty minutes later all participants complete the reaction-time test. Which group is the control group?

    An experimenter wants to study the relationship between caffeine and reaction time. She assigns participants as follows: Group One receives 100 mg of caffeine; Group Two receives 200 mg of caffeine; Group Three receives 300 mg of caffeine; and, Group Four receives no caffeine. Twenty minutes later all participants complete the reaction-time test. Which group is the control group? An experimenter wants to study the relationship between caffeine and reaction time. She assigns participants as follows: Group One receives 100 mg of caffeine; Group Two receives 200 mg of caffeine; Group Three receives 300 mg of caffeine; and, Group Four receives no caffeine. Twenty minutes later all participants complete the reaction-time test. Which group is the control group?

    A. Group Four

    A. Group Four

    B. Group Three

    B. Group Three

    C. Group Two

    C. Group Two

    D. Group One

    D. Group One

     

     

    Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 25, and 40. The mean of these five scores is

    Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 25, and 40. The mean of these five scores is Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 25, and 40. The mean of these five scores ismean

    A. 10.

    A. 10.

    B. 15.

    B. 15.

    C. 20.

    C. 20.

    D. 25.

    D. 25.

     

     

    Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 25, and 40. The median of these five scores is

    Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 25, and 40. The median of these five scores is Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 25, and 40. The median of these five scores ismedian

    A. 10.

    A. 10.

    B. 15.

    B. 15.

    C. 20.

    C. 20.

    D. 25

    D. 25

     

     

    If you find no relationship between two variables, what is the correlation coefficient?

    If you find no relationship between two variables, what is the correlation coefficient? If you find no relationship between two variables, what is the correlation coefficient?

    A. +1.00

    A. +1.00

    B. 0.00

    B. 0.00

    C. –0.87

    C. –0.87

    D. –0.99

    D. –0.99

     

     

    In science, the term theory refers to…        

    In science, the term theory refers to…         In science, the term theory refers to…        theory
    1. a guess about the relationship between two variables.        
    2. the outcome of one or more experiments.        
    3. a general set of principles that attempts to explain what is known about a phenomenon.        
    4. a prediction about an experiment.          
  • a guess about the relationship between two variables.        
  • a guess about the relationship between two variables.        
  • the outcome of one or more experiments.        
  • the outcome of one or more experiments.        
  • a general set of principles that attempts to explain what is known about a phenomenon.        
  • a general set of principles that attempts to explain what is known about a phenomenon.        
  • a prediction about an experiment.          
  • a prediction about an experiment.          

     

     

    Which research question would be best investigated by a correlational study?        

    Which research question would be best investigated by a correlational study?         Which research question would be best investigated by a correlational study?        
    1. What percent of married people cheat on their spouses?        
    2. Is there a relationship between body weight and personality?        
    3. Does a high-fat diet cause mice to die earlier?        
    4. Can hypnosis help people suffering from anorexia gain weight?      
  • What percent of married people cheat on their spouses?        
  • What percent of married people cheat on their spouses?        
  • Is there a relationship between body weight and personality?        
  • Is there a relationship between body weight and personality?        
  • Does a high-fat diet cause mice to die earlier?        
  • Does a high-fat diet cause mice to die earlier?        
  • Can hypnosis help people suffering from anorexia gain weight?      
  • Can hypnosis help people suffering from anorexia gain weight?      

        

        

        

     

     

    Social Responsibility (9)

    Social Responsibility (9) Social Responsibility (9)

     

     

    Which of the following represents a way that an individual with a bachelor’s degree in psychology could contribute positively to the welfare of the community?

    Which of the following represents a way that an individual with a bachelor’s degree in psychology could contribute positively to the welfare of the community? Which of the following represents a way that an individual with a bachelor’s degree in psychology could contribute positively to the welfare of the community?

    provide therapy for the mentally ill

    provide therapy for the mentally ill

    diagnose psychiatric patients at a local hospital

    diagnose psychiatric patients at a local hospital

    join a mentoring program to instill positive traits in adolescents

    join a mentoring program to instill positive traits in adolescents

    provide expert testimony at criminal trials

    provide expert testimony at criminal trials

     

     

    In which of the following jobs would an individual best be able to apply his or her knowledge of developmental psychology with the most positive outcome?

    In which of the following jobs would an individual best be able to apply his or her knowledge of developmental psychology with the most positive outcome? In which of the following jobs would an individual best be able to apply his or her knowledge of developmental psychology with the most positive outcome?

    psychiatric hospital employee

    psychiatric hospital employee

    factory manager

    factory manager

    marketing professional

    marketing professional

    elementary school teacher

    elementary school teacher

     

     

    A researcher notices that Asian participants usually score higher than Americans on the introversion subscale of the personality test she uses. This difference is most likely due to        

    A researcher notices that Asian participants usually score higher than Americans on the introversion subscale of the personality test she uses. This difference is most likely due to         A researcher notices that Asian participants usually score higher than Americans on the introversion subscale of the personality test she uses. This difference is most likely due to        

    genetic differences.        

    genetic differences.        

    experimenter bias.        

    experimenter bias.        

    sociocultural differences.        

    sociocultural differences.        

    test bias.          

    test bias.          

     

     

    The bystander effect occurs because

    The bystander effect occurs because The bystander effect occurs because

    A. we tend to look to the behavior of others for cues about what to do.

    A. we tend to look to the behavior of others for cues about what to do.

    B. if no one else is helping, we assume help is not needed.

    B. if no one else is helping, we assume help is not needed.

    C. responsibility is diffused among witnesses.

    C. responsibility is diffused among witnesses.

    D. All of these.

    D. All of these.

     

     

    When compared with adolescents who do not play violent video games, adolescents who do play these games are

    When compared with adolescents who do not play violent video games, adolescents who do play these games are When compared with adolescents who do not play violent video games, adolescents who do play these games are

    A. more likely to engage in delinquent acts.

    A. more likely to engage in delinquent acts.

    B. more sensitive to real-life violence.

    B. more sensitive to real-life violence.

    C. less likely to engage in aggressive behaviors.

    C. less likely to engage in aggressive behaviors.

    D. more likely to be sensitive to the feelings of others.

    D. more likely to be sensitive to the feelings of others.

     

     

    Dr. McCall found that class projects were of poorer quality when students worked in groups compared to when each student did an individual project. This difference can be explained by the phenomenon of

    Dr. McCall found that class projects were of poorer quality when students worked in groups compared to when each student did an individual project. This difference can be explained by the phenomenon of Dr. McCall found that class projects were of poorer quality when students worked in groups compared to when each student did an individual project. This difference can be explained by the phenomenon of

    A. inoculation.

    A. inoculation.

    B. social loafing.

    B. social loafing.

    C. mere exposure effect.

    C. mere exposure effect.

    D. polarization.

    D. polarization.

     

     

    Thinking that ethnic out-groups are not only different but are worse than your group is called

    Thinking that ethnic out-groups are not only different but are worse than your group is called Thinking that ethnic out-groups are not only different but are worse than your group is called

    A. the social identity hypothesis.

    A. the social identity hypothesis.

    B. ethnocentrism.

    B. ethnocentrism.

    C. deindividuation.

    C. deindividuation.

    D. normative social influence.

    D. normative social influence.

     

     

    The idea of “do onto others as you would have them do onto you” best describes

    The idea of “do onto others as you would have them do onto you” best describes The idea of “do onto others as you would have them do onto you” best describes

    A. attribution.

    A. attribution.

    B. reciprocity.

    B. reciprocity.

    C. ethnocentrism.

    C. ethnocentrism.

    D. conformity.

    D. conformity.

     

     

    People tend to view members of out-groups as more homogeneous (i.e., similar to each other) than the members of a group they belong to. Which of the following is the best example of this?        

    People tend to view members of out-groups as more homogeneous (i.e., similar to each other) than the members of a group they belong to. Which of the following is the best example of this?         People tend to view members of out-groups as more homogeneous (i.e., similar to each other) than the members of a group they belong to. Which of the following is the best example of this?        

    A. A woman prefers spending time with men instead of other women.        

    A. A woman prefers spending time with men instead of other women.        

    B. An American thinks that most Asians are smart.        

    B. An American thinks that most Asians are smart.        

    C. A parent thinks that all of his children are equally smart.        

    C. A parent thinks that all of his children are equally smart.        

    D. football player admires some of the players on another team but dislikes the rest.

    D. football player admires some of the players on another team but dislikes the rest.

     

       

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