**19.9** Randomly selected records of 140 convicted criminals reveal that their crimes were committed on the following days of the week:

(a) Using the .01 level of signiﬁcance, test the null hypothesis that in the underlying population, crimes are equally likely to be committed on any day of the week.

(b) Specify the approximate p -value for this test result.

(c) How might this result be reported in the literature?

**19.10** While playing a coin-tossing game in which you are to guess whether heads or tails will appear, you observe 30 heads in a string of 50 coin tosses.

(a) Test the null hypothesis that this coin is unbiased, that is, that heads and tails are equally likely to appear in the long run.

(b) Specify the approximate p -value for this test result.

***19.13** In 1912, over 800 passengers perished after the ocean liner Titanic collided with an iceberg and sank. The table below compares the survival frequencies of cabin and steerage passengers.

(a) Using the .05 level of signiﬁcance, test the null hypothesis that survival rates are independent of the passengers’ accommodations (cabin or steerage).

(b) Assuming a signiﬁcant c2, estimate the strength of the relationship.

(c) To more fully appreciate the importance of this relationship, calculate an odds ratio to determine how much more likely a cabin passenger is to have survived than a steerage passenger.

**19.14** In a classic study, Milgram et al. “lost” stamped envelopes with ﬁctitious addresses (Medical Research Association, Personal Address, Friends of Communist Party, and Friends of Nazi Party).* One hundred letters with each address were distributed among four locations (shops, cars, streets, and phone booths) in New Haven Connecticut, with the following results:

(a) Using the .05 level of signiﬁcance, test the null hypothesis that address does not matter in the underlying population.

(c) Assuming c2 is signiﬁcant; estimate the strength of this relationship.

(d) How might these results be reported in the literature?

(e) Collapse the original 4 x 2 table to a 2 x 2 table by combining the results for the two neutral addresses and for the two inﬂammatory addresses. Calculate the odds ratio for returned letters.

**19.16** A social scientist cross-classiﬁes the responses of 100 randomly selected people on the basis of gender and whether or not they favor strong gun control laws to obtain the following:

**20.5** A group of high-risk automobile drivers (with three moving violations in one year) are required, according to random assignment, either to attend a trafﬁc school or to perform supervised volunteer work. During the sub-sequent ﬁve-year period, these same drivers were cited for the following number of moving violations:

**20.6** A social psychologist wishes to test the assertion that our attitude toward other people tends to reﬂect our perception of their attitude toward us. A randomly selected member of each of 12 couples who live together is told (in private) that his or her partner has rated that person at the high end of a 0 to 100 scale of trustworthiness. The other member is told (also in private) that his or her partner has rated that person at the low end of the trustworthiness scale. Each person is then asked to estimate, in turn, the trustworthiness of his or her partner, yielding the following results. (According to the original assertion, the people in the trustworthy condition should give higher ratings than should their partners in the untrustworthy condition.)

**20.7** Does background music inﬂuence the scores of college students on a reading comprehension test? Sets of 10 randomly selected students take a reading comprehension test with rock, country, or classical music in the background. The results are as follows (higher scores reﬂect better comprehension):

**20.10** Use H rather than F to test the weight change data recorded in Review Question 16.13 on page 381.

**19.9** Randomly selected records of 140 convicted criminals reveal that their crimes were committed on the following days of the week:

(a) Using the .01 level of signiﬁcance, test the null hypothesis that in the underlying population, crimes are equally likely to be committed on any day of the week.

(b) Specify the approximate p -value for this test result.

(c) How might this result be reported in the literature?

**19.10** While playing a coin-tossing game in which you are to guess whether heads or tails will appear, you observe 30 heads in a string of 50 coin tosses.

(a) Test the null hypothesis that this coin is unbiased, that is, that heads and tails are equally likely to appear in the long run.

(b) Specify the approximate p -value for this test result.

***19.13** In 1912, over 800 passengers perished after the ocean liner Titanic collided with an iceberg and sank. The table below compares the survival frequencies of cabin and steerage passengers.

(a) Using the .05 level of signiﬁcance, test the null hypothesis that survival rates are independent of the passengers’ accommodations (cabin or steerage).

(b) Assuming a signiﬁcant c2, estimate the strength of the relationship.

(c) To more fully appreciate the importance of this relationship, calculate an odds ratio to determine how much more likely a cabin passenger is to have survived than a steerage passenger.

**19.14** In a classic study, Milgram et al. “lost” stamped envelopes with ﬁctitious addresses (Medical Research Association, Personal Address, Friends of Communist Party, and Friends of Nazi Party).* One hundred letters with each address were distributed among four locations (shops, cars, streets, and phone booths) in New Haven Connecticut, with the following results:

(a) Using the .05 level of signiﬁcance, test the null hypothesis that address does not matter in the underlying population.

(c) Assuming c2 is signiﬁcant; estimate the strength of this relationship.

(d) How might these results be reported in the literature?

(e) Collapse the original 4 x 2 table to a 2 x 2 table by combining the results for the two neutral addresses and for the two inﬂammatory addresses. Calculate the odds ratio for returned letters.

**19.16** A social scientist cross-classiﬁes the responses of 100 randomly selected people on the basis of gender and whether or not they favor strong gun control laws to obtain the following:

**20.5** A group of high-risk automobile drivers (with three moving violations in one year) are required, according to random assignment, either to attend a trafﬁc school or to perform supervised volunteer work. During the sub-sequent ﬁve-year period, these same drivers were cited for the following number of moving violations:

**20.6** A social psychologist wishes to test the assertion that our attitude toward other people tends to reﬂect our perception of their attitude toward us. A randomly selected member of each of 12 couples who live together is told (in private) that his or her partner has rated that person at the high end of a 0 to 100 scale of trustworthiness. The other member is told (also in private) that his or her partner has rated that person at the low end of the trustworthiness scale. Each person is then asked to estimate, in turn, the trustworthiness of his or her partner, yielding the following results. (According to the original assertion, the people in the trustworthy condition should give higher ratings than should their partners in the untrustworthy condition.)

**20.7** Does background music inﬂuence the scores of college students on a reading comprehension test? Sets of 10 randomly selected students take a reading comprehension test with rock, country, or classical music in the background. The results are as follows (higher scores reﬂect better comprehension):

**20.10** Use H rather than F to test the weight change data recorded in Review Question 16.13 on page 381.

**19.9** Randomly selected records of 140 convicted criminals reveal that their crimes were committed on the following days of the week:

(a) Using the .01 level of signiﬁcance, test the null hypothesis that in the underlying population, crimes are equally likely to be committed on any day of the week.

(b) Specify the approximate p -value for this test result.

(c) How might this result be reported in the literature?

**19.10** While playing a coin-tossing game in which you are to guess whether heads or tails will appear, you observe 30 heads in a string of 50 coin tosses.

(a) Test the null hypothesis that this coin is unbiased, that is, that heads and tails are equally likely to appear in the long run.

(b) Specify the approximate p -value for this test result.

***19.13** In 1912, over 800 passengers perished after the ocean liner Titanic collided with an iceberg and sank. The table below compares the survival frequencies of cabin and steerage passengers.

(a) Using the .05 level of signiﬁcance, test the null hypothesis that survival rates are independent of the passengers’ accommodations (cabin or steerage).

(b) Assuming a signiﬁcant c2, estimate the strength of the relationship.

(c) To more fully appreciate the importance of this relationship, calculate an odds ratio to determine how much more likely a cabin passenger is to have survived than a steerage passenger.

**19.14** In a classic study, Milgram et al. “lost” stamped envelopes with ﬁctitious addresses (Medical Research Association, Personal Address, Friends of Communist Party, and Friends of Nazi Party).* One hundred letters with each address were distributed among four locations (shops, cars, streets, and phone booths) in New Haven Connecticut, with the following results:

(a) Using the .05 level of signiﬁcance, test the null hypothesis that address does not matter in the underlying population.

(c) Assuming c2 is signiﬁcant; estimate the strength of this relationship.

(d) How might these results be reported in the literature?

(e) Collapse the original 4 x 2 table to a 2 x 2 table by combining the results for the two neutral addresses and for the two inﬂammatory addresses. Calculate the odds ratio for returned letters.

**19.16** A social scientist cross-classiﬁes the responses of 100 randomly selected people on the basis of gender and whether or not they favor strong gun control laws to obtain the following:

**20.5** A group of high-risk automobile drivers (with three moving violations in one year) are required, according to random assignment, either to attend a trafﬁc school or to perform supervised volunteer work. During the sub-sequent ﬁve-year period, these same drivers were cited for the following number of moving violations:

**20.6** A social psychologist wishes to test the assertion that our attitude toward other people tends to reﬂect our perception of their attitude toward us. A randomly selected member of each of 12 couples who live together is told (in private) that his or her partner has rated that person at the high end of a 0 to 100 scale of trustworthiness. The other member is told (also in private) that his or her partner has rated that person at the low end of the trustworthiness scale. Each person is then asked to estimate, in turn, the trustworthiness of his or her partner, yielding the following results. (According to the original assertion, the people in the trustworthy condition should give higher ratings than should their partners in the untrustworthy condition.)

**20.7** Does background music inﬂuence the scores of college students on a reading comprehension test? Sets of 10 randomly selected students take a reading comprehension test with rock, country, or classical music in the background. The results are as follows (higher scores reﬂect better comprehension):

**20.10** Use H rather than F to test the weight change data recorded in Review Question 16.13 on page 381.

**19.9** Randomly selected records of 140 convicted criminals reveal that their crimes were committed on the following days of the week:

**19.9** Randomly selected records of 140 convicted criminals reveal that their crimes were committed on the following days of the week:**19.9**19.9 Randomly selected records of 140 convicted criminals reveal that their crimes were committed on the following days of the week:

(b) Specify the approximate p -value for this test result.

(b) Specify the approximate p -value for this test result.

(c) How might this result be reported in the literature?

(c) How might this result be reported in the literature?

**19.10** While playing a coin-tossing game in which you are to guess whether heads or tails will appear, you observe 30 heads in a string of 50 coin tosses.

**19.10** While playing a coin-tossing game in which you are to guess whether heads or tails will appear, you observe 30 heads in a string of 50 coin tosses. **19.10**19.10 While playing a coin-tossing game in which you are to guess whether heads or tails will appear, you observe 30 heads in a string of 50 coin tosses.

(b) Specify the approximate p -value for this test result.

(b) Specify the approximate p -value for this test result.

***19.13** In 1912, over 800 passengers perished after the ocean liner Titanic collided with an iceberg and sank. The table below compares the survival frequencies of cabin and steerage passengers.

***19.13** In 1912, over 800 passengers perished after the ocean liner Titanic collided with an iceberg and sank. The table below compares the survival frequencies of cabin and steerage passengers.***19.13***19.13 In 1912, over 800 passengers perished after the ocean liner Titanic collided with an iceberg and sank. The table below compares the survival frequencies of cabin and steerage passengers.

(b) Assuming a signiﬁcant c2, estimate the strength of the relationship.

(b) Assuming a signiﬁcant c2, estimate the strength of the relationship.

**19.14** In a classic study, Milgram et al. “lost” stamped envelopes with ﬁctitious addresses (Medical Research Association, Personal Address, Friends of Communist Party, and Friends of Nazi Party).* One hundred letters with each address were distributed among four locations (shops, cars, streets, and phone booths) in New Haven Connecticut, with the following results:

**19.14** In a classic study, Milgram et al. “lost” stamped envelopes with ﬁctitious addresses (Medical Research Association, Personal Address, Friends of Communist Party, and Friends of Nazi Party).* One hundred letters with each address were distributed among four locations (shops, cars, streets, and phone booths) in New Haven Connecticut, with the following results:**19.14**19.14 In a classic study, Milgram et al. “lost” stamped envelopes with ﬁctitious addresses (Medical Research Association, Personal Address, Friends of Communist Party, and Friends of Nazi Party).* One hundred letters with each address were distributed among four locations (shops, cars, streets, and phone booths) in New Haven Connecticut, with the following results:

(c) Assuming c2 is signiﬁcant; estimate the strength of this relationship.

(c) Assuming c2 is signiﬁcant; estimate the strength of this relationship.

(d) How might these results be reported in the literature?

(d) How might these results be reported in the literature?

**19.16** A social scientist cross-classiﬁes the responses of 100 randomly selected people on the basis of gender and whether or not they favor strong gun control laws to obtain the following:

**19.16** A social scientist cross-classiﬁes the responses of 100 randomly selected people on the basis of gender and whether or not they favor strong gun control laws to obtain the following:**19.16**19.16 A social scientist cross-classiﬁes the responses of 100 randomly selected people on the basis of gender and whether or not they favor strong gun control laws to obtain the following:

**20.5** A group of high-risk automobile drivers (with three moving violations in one year) are required, according to random assignment, either to attend a trafﬁc school or to perform supervised volunteer work. During the sub-sequent ﬁve-year period, these same drivers were cited for the following number of moving violations:

**20.5** A group of high-risk automobile drivers (with three moving violations in one year) are required, according to random assignment, either to attend a trafﬁc school or to perform supervised volunteer work. During the sub-sequent ﬁve-year period, these same drivers were cited for the following number of moving violations:**20.5**20.5 A group of high-risk automobile drivers (with three moving violations in one year) are required, according to random assignment, either to attend a trafﬁc school or to perform supervised volunteer work. During the sub-sequent ﬁve-year period, these same drivers were cited for the following number of moving violations:

**20.6** A social psychologist wishes to test the assertion that our attitude toward other people tends to reﬂect our perception of their attitude toward us. A randomly selected member of each of 12 couples who live together is told (in private) that his or her partner has rated that person at the high end of a 0 to 100 scale of trustworthiness. The other member is told (also in private) that his or her partner has rated that person at the low end of the trustworthiness scale. Each person is then asked to estimate, in turn, the trustworthiness of his or her partner, yielding the following results. (According to the original assertion, the people in the trustworthy condition should give higher ratings than should their partners in the untrustworthy condition.)

**20.6** A social psychologist wishes to test the assertion that our attitude toward other people tends to reﬂect our perception of their attitude toward us. A randomly selected member of each of 12 couples who live together is told (in private) that his or her partner has rated that person at the high end of a 0 to 100 scale of trustworthiness. The other member is told (also in private) that his or her partner has rated that person at the low end of the trustworthiness scale. Each person is then asked to estimate, in turn, the trustworthiness of his or her partner, yielding the following results. (According to the original assertion, the people in the trustworthy condition should give higher ratings than should their partners in the untrustworthy condition.)**20.6**20.6 A social psychologist wishes to test the assertion that our attitude toward other people tends to reﬂect our perception of their attitude toward us. A randomly selected member of each of 12 couples who live together is told (in private) that his or her partner has rated that person at the high end of a 0 to 100 scale of trustworthiness. The other member is told (also in private) that his or her partner has rated that person at the low end of the trustworthiness scale. Each person is then asked to estimate, in turn, the trustworthiness of his or her partner, yielding the following results. (According to the original assertion, the people in the trustworthy condition should give higher ratings than should their partners in the untrustworthy condition.)

**20.7** Does background music inﬂuence the scores of college students on a reading comprehension test? Sets of 10 randomly selected students take a reading comprehension test with rock, country, or classical music in the background. The results are as follows (higher scores reﬂect better comprehension):

**20.7** Does background music inﬂuence the scores of college students on a reading comprehension test? Sets of 10 randomly selected students take a reading comprehension test with rock, country, or classical music in the background. The results are as follows (higher scores reﬂect better comprehension): **20.7**20.7 Does background music inﬂuence the scores of college students on a reading comprehension test? Sets of 10 randomly selected students take a reading comprehension test with rock, country, or classical music in the background. The results are as follows (higher scores reﬂect better comprehension):

**20.10** Use H rather than F to test the weight change data recorded in Review Question 16.13 on page 381.

**20.10** Use H rather than F to test the weight change data recorded in Review Question 16.13 on page 381.**20.10**20.10 Use H rather than F to test the weight change data recorded in Review Question 16.13 on page 381.