Multilingual, Bicultural Challenges: A Slippery Slope The growing migration into the United States carries diversity butbrings with it access limitations to necessary healthcare services. Theforeign-born population has increased to an excess of sixty million inthe United States (Lopez & Radford, 2017). This is a population thatspeaks a native tongue in their household, with English as a secondlanguage, while half are not proficient or cannot speak Englishaccording to the United States Census Bureau. To further compound theissue of language as a barrier to healthcare services, less than a thirdof the hospitals nationwide offer translation services while othersoffer only inadequate services. Translation services have proven to be essential in providing qualityhealthcare. Many healthcare organizations rely on a dangerousproposition of enlisting fellow patents, family members, friends,employees, and other untrained uncertified nonclinical individuals.Reliance on spur-of-the-moment ad hoc solutions presents a jeopardy tothe well-being of the patient and the healthcare organization. The engagement of ad hoc translation or interpretation can introduceuncertainty and risk for the patient and the provider. The ad hocmeasure can introduce a difference in dialect and understanding on thebasis of cultural or religious beliefs, animosity of ethnic, cultural,religious, or other consternating factors. Safeguards must be consideredfor both the patient and the provider. The cost of translation/interpretation services is considerablyexpensive, but necessary. Reluctance or refusal to provide such servicesis a shortsighted failing to consider potential negative healthoutcomes, relinquishing the opportunity to further provider/patientrelationships, and the risk of legal repercussions. The most convenientand cost-effective measure might be tele-translation services providedby a certified translator on a twenty-four-hour basis. References:Lopez, G., & Radford, J. (2017).Facts on U.S. immigrants, 2015: Statistical portrait of the foreign-bornpopulation in the United States. Pew Research Center, Hispanic Trends. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/2017/05/03/facts-on-u-s…Pew Research Center. (2015, September 28). Modern immigration wave brings 59 million to U.S., driving population growth and change through 2065.Retrieved fromhttp://www.pewhispanic.org/2015/09/28/modern-immig…Overcoming Language BarriersReview the tabs to know more about medical interpreters in a healthcare setting.The importance of professional medical interpreters in a healthcare setting The exchange of accurate informationbetween the patient and the provider is a large part of medical care.The collection of accurate and comprehensive patient-specific dataremains the basis for proper diagnosis and prognosis. Certifiedinterpreters facilitate communication and help in the prevention ofmisunderstandings by ensuring that correct information is passed on.The role of a medical interpreter The importance of using qualified medical interpreters How interpreters can improve access to care and outcome Additional MaterialsFrom the Internet, read the following:Georgetown University Health Policy Institute. (2004). Cultural competence in health care: Is it important for people with chronic conditions? Retrieved from https://hpi.georgetown.edu/agingsociety/pubhtml/cu…Jacobs, E., Shephard, D., Suaya, J., & Stone, E. (n.d.). Overcoming language barriers in health care: Costs and benefits of interpreter services. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC14483…Lieu, T. A., Ray, G. T., Klein, N. P., Chung, C., & Kulldorff,M. (2015). Geographic clusters in underimmunization and vaccinerefusal. Pediatrics, 135(2), 280–289. doi:10.1542/peds.2014-2715Pew Research Center. (2015, September 28). Modern immigration wave brings 59 million to U.S., driving population growth and change through 2065.Retrieved fromhttp://www.pewhispanic.org/2015/09/28/modern-immig…Quinton, S. (2017, February 13). Health care adjusts to a more diverse America.Retrieved fromhttp://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/…U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division. (2004). Executive order 13166 limited English proficiency resource document: Tips and tools from the field.Retrievedfromhttps://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/crt/le…The Pew Charitable Trusts Research & Analysis. (2014, December 18). Changing patterns in U.S. immigration and population.Retrieved fromhttp://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/…Youdelman, M. (2013). The development of certification for healthcare interpreters in the United States. International Journal for Translation & Interpreting Research, 5(1). Retrieved from http://trans-int.org/index.php/transint/article/vi…Barriers to Care The issues creating barriers to healthcare for individuals arenumerous. The greatest barrier to healthcare is health literacy. Todefine the scope of the issue, research conducted by the United StatesDepartment of Education found that thirty-two million adults cannot readabove the fifth grade level and 20 percent of high school graduatescannot read. When foreign-born, non-English-speaking individuals arealso considered, the magnitude of the problem is considerable.Statistical InformationThere has been a growing trend directed toward vaccines and theAmerican Pediatric Academy immunization schedule of immunizationadministration. The hesitancy, refusal, and delay of childhoodvaccination have been associated with an elevated risk ofvaccine-preventable disease. Diseases that were once considerederadiated or controlled are emerging in communities. The factorsinfluencing the emergence of these diseases are immigrant settlementpatterns, cultural factors, language barriers, religious beliefs, loweducational levels, and socioeconomic status.Reference:Lieu,T., Thomas, R., Klein, N., Chung, C., & Kulldorff, M. (2015).Geographic clusters in under-immunization and vaccine refusal. Pediatrics, 135(2).Financial limitations are another significant barrier to accessinghealthcare services and filling necessary prescriptions to managechronic diseases. In addition, a substantial number of individuals oflower-socioeconomic status and the elderly have poor adherence toprescription medication, fail to manage a chronic disease, or fail tomake needed lifestyle changes to mitigate declining quality of life. Cultural differences are a challenge beyond language. Some culturesdon’t realize the need for healthcare until they start feeling ill. Insome cultures, religious beliefs prevent individuals from acceptingcertain medical services such as transfusion and immunization. Inothers, family dynamics center on a maternal or paternal paradigm, whichguides the activity of family members. While each example seemsextreme, the intent is to highlight the interwoven complex issues thatsurround barriers to care and diversity in society.This complex web of barriers to care needs to be addressedcollectively with a focus on demographics. The financial burden toaddress all the barriers is exhaustively expensive, and for some issues,there is no logical, or reasonable, approach. The burden of diseaseover the past few decades has shifted from the acute illness to achronic health condition, which increases the importance of healthliterary. Select areas are impacted by specific issues in varyingdegrees. As such, the most significant should be addressed to have thegreatest impact. One of the most significant barriers to bridge ishealth literacy. The approach to allow individuals to become moreunderstanding of their illness and treatment can likely havefar-reaching promise.Cultural Differences in HealthcareThere is a distinct difference between the notion of illness anddisease. The idea of illness rests within the individual’s livedexperience, while disease is a science-based event impactingpopulations. In a diverse society, healthcare can be complex andconflicting. Challenges to deliver healthcare become further complicatedwhen intertwined with religious, cultural, and language barriers.Conceptually, Western and Eastern medicine vary and have subculturesunto their own history, language, codes of conduct, expectations,methods, and outcomes. The Western paradigm embraces science as itsbiological foundation and transcends the idea of religion and culture.Eastern wellness practices recognize the idea of the whole person,accepting spiritual, cultural, and religious overlays to this scientificbasis. However, science demonstrates human populations are guidedbiological principles that surpass cultural dogmas.Additional MaterialsFrom the Internet, read the following:Georgetown University Health Policy Institute. (2004). Cultural competence in health care: Is it important for people with chronic conditions? Retrieved from https://hpi.georgetown.edu/agingsociety/pubhtml/cu…Cohn, D. (2007, May 17). The growing global chronic disease epidemic. Retrieved from http://www.prb.org/Publications/Articles/2007/Grow…Review the following lectures:Multilingual, Bicultural Challenges: A Slippery SlopeBarriers to CareBefore beginning work on this assignment, please review the expanded grading rubric for specific instructions relating to content and formatting.From the Internet, read the following:Cohn, D. (2007, May 17). The growing global chronic disease epidemic. Retrieved from: http://www.prb.org/Publications/Articles/2007/Grow…Georgetown University Health Policy Institute. (2004). Cultural competence in health care: Is it important for people with chronic conditions? Retrieved from https://hpi.georgetown.edu/agingsociety/pubhtml/cu…Putsch, R., & Joyce, M. (n.d.). Dealing with Patients from Other Cultures: Methodology in Cross-cultural Care. 229, 1050–1065. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK340/pdf/Book…Roush, S. (2011). Chapter 19: Enhancing surveillance. In VPD surveillance manual (5th ed.). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/surv-manual/chpt…Question:This week, we discussed the growing social diversity in the UnitedStates and the resultant barriers to care. Use the information presentedin the readings and identify three of the most pressing issues, which,if addressed, might have the greatest impact upon healthcare delivery.In your approach, you can elect to identify an issue specific to a localhospital catchment area. Taking this approach, include the regionaldemographics, the problem, the issues of diversity differences withinthe healthcare workforce, and your approach to an effective solution. Inyour narrative, also discuss whether the efforts would be effective inaddressing the problem and improving the health outcomes.To support your work, use your course and textbook readings and also use the South University Online Library. As in all assignments, cite your sources in your work and provide references for the citations in APA format.
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